Valençay and actually all of these Loire style lactic goat cheeses have always been cheeses that were made to fir the schedule of the farmer-cheesemaker, not the other way around. It really doesn't need much time. Inoculate the milk on day 1 (10 minutes), mould on day 2 (10 minutes) unmould, salt and cave at day 3 (10-15 min). Then turn it daily (1 minute). It's a real "set if and forget it" family of cheeses.
So first thing, you said that you were looking for the fast-draining Italian Caprino style moulds. You would be happy to know that I actually stock and sell these. Please send me a personal message and I will get you set up with some moulds!
Now for the cheese:
The flavor of the real thing (especially the un-pasteurized version) is very tangy, salty and lots of grassy properties. It has a strong lingering buttery finish and aftertaste. The texture is initially chalky and moist, but over time the center of the cheese becomes drier while the outward becomes soft and gooey. This is true for Valençay and Sainte Maure, but not so much for Crottin which becomes harder and drier as it ages. When Valençay ages it tends to ammoniate (it begins to liquify from the outside in.) The initial liquification is tasty and supple in great contrast to the chalky heart of the cheese (like having two cheeses in one!). However eventually this turns into ammonia which is biting, unpleasant and not desired. That would be considered "over the hill". You can prevent ammoniation by reducing moisture and storage temperature as the cheese ages. Another way is to stabilize the cheese with a thermophilic strain, but unfortunately this could also prevent the pleasant liquification effect from taking place, so perhaps it is best to come to term with the fact that this cheese should be consumed when it is in its prime and stored well to extend the prime period.
As for the rind, it is fluffy but very thin and light. There is almost no bite to it at all. You can't peel it off. This is difficult to get right and takes a bit of practice. Rinds tend to age thick and rubbery but that's not what you want. The ash layer is faint. Not heavy. It should never smear ash all over the cheese with the knife cutting it and you don't want ash on the teeth of the the people consuming it. A good practice is to mix the ash with the salt and then just salt the cheese with this "black salt" mixture. (I do 1 part ash to 5 parts salt).
I thnk that answers your first batch of questions.
As for your ash question - absolutely! Go ahead and make your own mould. It needs to be as thin as flour though. really pulverize it. Be mindful of charcoals that have an aroma as it will transfer to the cheese. Traditionally this cheese is made with the ash of grape vine branches, but these days everyone use activated charcoal which is a neutral product without flavor/aroma.
Now this will answer all the other questions hiding in your text:
Let me start by commenting on your process:
First, I would suggest to inoculate the milk when it's still fresh. You are introcucing bacterial starters that can out-compete pathogens which is good for raw milk cheese. Don't worry about cooling the milk. It will have many hours so it will stabilize down to room temperature anyway.
Secondly, I think the cheese needs time to build more acid in it. It will make it more tangy and the rind won't show (or at least not as strong) on the cheese too early because the cheese will be very acidic so the yeasts will take more time to de-acidify it and allow the rind to grow.
You want to drain it in a cooler place. It can even be inside the moulds -in the cave. 80°F i a bit high. If the rind begins to grow too quickly, it will trap lots of moisture in and the cheese will never properly be drained. This causes that ammonia buildup, thick skin and worst - slipping skin.
As far as not following the instructions perfectly - you still want to make sure your culture dosage is correct and that you are not putting too much rennet. (these cheeses take very little rennet). Too much rennet can cause bitterness. This may be what you are describing. Also, vegetable based and animal based rennet has different bitterness aging properties so you can play with that.
Now, getting to the Calcium Chloride part of your question:
When milk is pasteurized, it looses lots of calcium. If you try to coagulate it, it will not hold together very well. Curd will be too soft and yield will be low. Calcium chloride is added to the milk in order to put the missing calcium back where it belongs. If you are using your own raw milk - DO NOT ADD THE CALCIUM! You are over-loading the milk with calcium. You may end up with overly stiff or chalky cheese and it may taste bitter/soapy.
I hope this helps!