I would go with caerphilly for quick aging as it is a good cheese when young (3 weeks is usually when I cut into it as it has a nice tang at that age, but you can age it up to a year). There's a Lancashire protocol on the site that is good, and ready in 2 months. I've had good luck with some Staffordshire makes that I've put together, and they are ready in about 3 months. I've made Dunlop (a Scottish Cheddar) a few times, and I have cut into it at 6 weeks and it was very nice, and gets better if you age it out. Butterkase is good, though it can be very mild. I've made two Cheshire's, though I've only cut into one of them, but it was very nice. My 2nd I'm aging out until closer to Christmas. All of these cheeses are one's I've made, and I've posted my notes on the boards here somewhere. Others have made them too, so you should find lots of details and comments to peruse to give you all the tips and tricks.
Montasio is supposed to be ok when young, though if you find my makes cut back on the lipase to 1/8th tsp, or even a bit less, as 1/4 tsp is really more for a grating cheese (so you should age it out to a year for that). I've not tried it as a table cheese, but I intend to one of these times. Bitto is a neat cheese that I found a protocol of Deejay Debbie's which might be worth a look (especially if you have access to goats milk, if so, leave out the lipase and make 10-20% of the milk goat's milk and the rest cow's milk and that should get you as close as we can get). Oh, Derby is another decent cheddar type cheese, and there are various protocols on the board for that too.
Basically, just scan through the boards and read threads. Look for ones where they post the make details so you can copy those details, then read the thread in case there are any tips or corrections (i.e. I found it was too dry, next time I would do ....) and update your notes.