Author Topic: Gouda Cheese Making: Four Recipes Compared  (Read 4584 times)

Offline John (CH)

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Gouda Cheese Making: Four Recipes Compared
« on: August 14, 2009, 02:28:50 PM »
The last time I made Gouda was in June 2008 when I was still very new to cheese making. I want to start making Gouda again.

To help understand the method I've summarized four surprisingly quite different Gouda recipes by each step, hoping it will invite discussion of others experiences and recommendations, and thereby enable me to go work quicker up the learning curve (my comments in brackets):

GENERAL
Gouda is a washed curd cheese like Colby and quite quick to mature.
Peter Dixon:
  • A slice of Gouda typically has a few pea-sized eyes.
CHR Hansen:
  • Gouda is a ripened cheese originating from Holland. It accounts for >2/3 of the total Dutch cheese production.
  • Gouda was originally sold in 5-8 kg wheels with a shiny, golden rind, inside the cheese is ivory colored & has a smooth & springy texture with few holes.
Debra 200:
  • Process of washing curds is to develop a sweet and elastic paste.
Ricki Carroll:
  • Waxing is not done in Holland, washing the curd reduces milk sugar (lactose) from curds, resulting in lower acid level to avoid souring the cheese, giving Gouda it's smooth texture and mild flavor.

STEP #1: MILK PREPARATION
Peter Dixon:
  • Warm milk to 86-88°F (30.0-31.0C).
CHR Hansen:
  • Warm milk to 86-90F (30.0-32.2C).
Debra 200:
  • Warm milk to 85F/29C.
Ricki Carroll:
  • Warm milk to 90F (32.2C).

STEP #2: STARTER CULTURE
Peter Dixon:
  • 0.25-0.5% Rosell Aroma B bulk starter or Danisco DVS Choozit MM100 or MM101 or BT002 @ 1 unit per 50-100 lb. milk.
CHR Hansen:
  • CHR Hansen CHN-11, FLORA-DANICA, CHN-19, DCC-240 or DCC-250 @ 500-1000u/5000 liter.
Debra 200:
  • Sprinkle ½ tsp/2.5 ml mesophilic starter (no type recommended) per 4 US gallons milk over milk, let stand 5 min, stir in. Add CaCl2.
Ricki Carroll:
  • Add meso starter packet add diluted CaCl2 if necessary.

STEP #3: PRE-RIPENING
Peter Dixon:
  • Set aside for 30 minutes.
CHR Hansen:
  • Set aside for 30-45 minutes.
Debra 200:
  • No pre-ripen time given, ie go direct to renneting.
Ricki Carroll:
  • Set aside for 10 minutes.

STEP #4: RENNETING
Your choice and amount.

STEP #5: CUTTING CURD
Peter Dixon:
  • After 40 min check for Clean Break & cut into 0.375 in (3/8”)/9.5 mm cubes after 3 x the curdling time. (I don't understand that).
CHR Hansen:
  • After clean break cut into 5-7 mm/0.2-0.28 in cubes.
Debra 200:
  • After 10-15 min check for clean break, cut into 12.5 mm/0.5 in cubes.
Ricki Carroll:
  • After 1 hour or until clean break, cut into 0.5 in (12.5 mm) cubes.

STEP #6: COOKING CUT CURD
Peter Dixon:
  • Heal curds for 5 min then gently stir curds in whey for 15 minutes.
CHR Hansen:
  • Stir for 15-25 min.
Debra 200:
  • Stand 5 min, stir 5 min, stand 5 min, if curds do not sink, stir and stand again.
Ricki Carroll:
  • Stand for 10 min.

STEP #7: WASHING CURDS
Peter Dixon:
  • Let curds settle to the bottom, drain off whey equal to one third of original milk volume.
  • While stirring curds, add enough 130F (54.4C) water to raise the temp to 95F (35.0C), then stir for another 5 min.
  • Add additional 130F (54.4C) water to fully replace the removed whey and raising the temp to hit final target 98-102F (36.7-38.9C), depending on the cheese moisture content desired
  • Stir for 30 min.
  • Let curds settle to the bottom of vat for 5 min.
CHR Hansen:
  • Drain 35-45% whey then stir for 15 min.
  • Add 25-30% start volume ~60C/140F to reach target35-38C/95-100F depending on final moisture content you want.
  • Stir for 15-30 min.
Debra 200:
  • Remove 10% of whey, add same amount of 140F/60C water to bring to target 92F/33C.
  • Stir gently for 10 min, then let curds settle.
  • Remove 1/3 of whey-water until surface of curds is just visible under the whey, replace with same volume of 110F/43C water to bring to target 98F/37C.
  • Stir curds continuously for 20 min, curds should shrink to size of navy beans.
  • Let curds stand/settle for 10 min.
Ricki Carroll:
  • Remove 1/3 whey, while stirring continuously, add enough 175F (79.4C) water to raise temp to 92F (33.3C).
  • Let curds settle for 10 min.
  • Remove whey-water to level of curds, while stirring continuously, add enough 175F (79.4C) water to raise temp to 100F (37.8C).
  • Let curds settle for 10 min, stir curds often to avoid matting.
  • Let curds stand/settle for 30 min.

STEP #8: PRE-PRESSING IN WHEY
Peter Dixon:
  • Push and draw the curds towards the back of the vat to form the desired depth of the curd pack.
  • Drain/remove whey/water until the curd pack is covered by 2 “ whey.
  • Place a perforated press plate on top.
  • Add 1 lb. weight per 1 lb. curd, equally distributed to press the curd pack and press curds under the whey for 15 minutes.
  • Drain off the water/whey and remove weights and press plate.
CHR Hansen:
  • Drain/remove most of whey/water.
  • Lightly pressed at 2-4 kg/cm2 (28.4-56.8 psi) under the remaining whey for 15-30 min. (They must have units wrong!)
Debra 200:
  • Does not have this step.
Ricki Carroll:
  • Does not have this step.

STEP #9: PRESSING
Peter Dixon:
  • Cut blocks from the pack and fit directly into cheese hoops.
  • Press with 1.5-3 pound (0.7-1.4 kg) weight per 1 pound (0.7 kg) of cheese.
  • Remove cheeses from press, turn over, and put back in hoops & press.
  • When acidity is 35-40 degrees or pH 5.4-5.5, remove from press and place in a cool (50 F) room overnight.
CHR Hansen:
  • Cut curd into suitably sized blocks and fit into moulds.
  • Press lightly for 20 min.
  • Then press at 4-6 kg/cm2 (56.8-85.2 psi) for 1-2 hrs. (Again they must have their units wrong).
  • The curd blocks can stay in the moulds until the following morning, very often in cold water (?), or be dumped directly into cold brine at a pH of 5.75-5.85 depending on the moisture content wanted.
Debra 200:
  • Pour some of whey through mold to preheat.
  • Break off pieces of knit curd and place in mold with cone shape in middle. It will drain fairly quickly, losing volume.
  • Press lightly for 30 min.
  • Turn and press at medium for 8-12 hours or overnight.
Ricki Carroll:
  • Quickly place warm curds in mold, breaking them as little as possible.
  • Press at 20 pounds for 20 minutes.
  • Turn and press at 40 pounds for 20 min.
  • Turn and press at 50 pounds for 12-16 hours.

STEP #10: SALTING
Peter Dixon:
  • In Morning, place in a saturated brine the next morning or place immediately in a saturated brine for 3-4 hours per lb./0.45 kg of cheese depending on desired salt content. Alternatively, rub cheese wheels with coarse flake dry salt once per day for each 3 lb/1.36 kg of cheese.
CHR Hansen:
  • Time in brine depends on the size of the cheese block. Aim at 4% salt in moisture.
Debra 200:
  • Place in brine for 12 hours, turning once after 6 hours.
Ricki Carroll:
  • Place in saturated brine for 12 hours, turning once after 6 hours.

STEP #11: AGING
Peter Dixon:
  • Air dry wheel @ 80-85% RH and 50-60 °F/10.0-15.6C until the surfaces are dry but not cracked; (rinds that are cracked will allow molds to penetrate the cheese).
  • Wax or if natural rind, clean rind periodically to remove unwanted molds wiping with a cloth or disposable sponge dipped in 2-3% warm brine solution. After approx. 30 days it is possible to use a brush for cleaning.
  • Store wheel at 50-55°F/10.0-12.8C and 85-90% RH for at least 60 days.
  • Cheeses in wax will last 6 months. If natural rind, can age indefinitely as additional moisture will be lost, which slows down microbial activity during curing.
  • Higher temp during drying and aging, the greater chance the eye development.
CHR Hansen:
  • The cheese is ripened at 10-15°C (50-59°F) and 90% RH for 4-8 weeks (young) or 8-17 weeks (mature).
  • Packaging Wax or plastic coating is recommended.
  • Key target pH at 24 hours is 5.15-5.25.
Debra 200:
  • Pat dry of brine and then air dry on mat at room temp for 2-3 days (turn daily) or until rind is almost dry to touch.
  • Place on clean mat in ripening room at 50-54F/10-12C and 85% humidity for 1 week.
  • Wax and return to ripening area and age for 6 weeks to several month, turning weekly.
Ricki Carroll:
  • Pat cheese dry of brine, air dry at 50F (10.0C) for 3 weeks.
  • Wax and return to ripening area and age for 3-4 months, turning 3-4 times per week.
« Last Edit: August 14, 2009, 02:41:04 PM by John (CH) »

Offline John (CH)

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Re: Gouda Cheese Making: Four Recipes Compared
« Reply #1 on: August 14, 2009, 03:27:39 PM »
Questions:

STEP #1: MILK PREPARATION
I assume middle of the pack 88F/31.0C is good?
What are pros and cons in going cooler/warmer?

STEP #2: STARTER CULTURE
Danisco DVS Choozit MM100, MM101, and BT002 all have:
  • Lactococcus lactis subspecies lactis
  • Lactococcus lactis subspecies cremoris
  • Lactococcus lactis subspecies biovar diacetylactis
Flora Danica has the same plus:
  • Leuconostoc mesenteroides subspecies cremoris
Which is better for Gouda or others using different or mixed?

STEP #3: PRE-RIPENING
Assume 30 min is best, anyone have experience with results using less or more time?

STEP #4: RENNETING
Not a Gouda specific subject.

STEP #5: CUTTING CURD
The professional recipes recommend smaller curds sizes, anyone have different experiences/results with smaller/larger cut curd sizes?

STEP #6: COOKING CUT CURD
Generally stir off and on for 20 minutes?

STEP #7: WASHING CURDS
Anyone have recommendations and or experiences using different methods in this step?

STEP #8: PRE-PRESSING IN WHEY
Professional recipes say to do this step, books skip it, anyone done it, and how and with what weights, and results?

STEP #9: PRESSING
Peter Dixon's recipe uses very light weights, CHR Hansen must have a typo as ridiculous psi, Debra uses medium (?) weight, Ricki 50 pounds. Anyone have recommendations and experiences including times?

STEP #10: SALTING
Straight forward, Peter Dixon's guide of 3-4 hours in sat brine per pound of cheese is good.

STEP #11: AGING
I'd like to try natural rind, assume normal tricks and traps, ie nothing special for Gouda?

Thanks!

Offline DeejayDebi

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Re: Gouda Cheese Making: Four Recipes Compared
« Reply #2 on: August 14, 2009, 08:05:11 PM »
Nice job John! I do that often and type up the recipes. then I decide what I want to do as I go along.

Just goes to show there's no one right way to make cheese!

Offline Sailor Con Queso

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Re: Gouda Cheese Making: Four Recipes Compared
« Reply #3 on: August 14, 2009, 10:23:22 PM »
Most are a matter of choice

1- Higher starter temp means faster acid production
2- Aroma B is the same species mix as Flora Danica (MM100+MM57)
3- Longer ripening means lower pH
4- NA
5- Larger curds means slower whey release and moister cheese
6- Longer cooking (and/or higher temp) means firmer curd that gives off less whey (moister)
7- Washing temp also effects moisture
8- Definitely press in whey. This is actually "prepressing" to start the curds matting.
9- Don't agree with the very light weight for final pressing.
A moldy Stilton is a thing of beauty. Yes, you eat the rind. - Ed
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Offline John (CH)

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Re: Gouda Cheese Making: Four Recipes Compared
« Reply #4 on: August 14, 2009, 11:02:52 PM »
SCQ, thanks for feedback :)!

2 - Any advice, thoughts on the different flavor - result from Aroma B/Flora Danica vs using MM100/MM101/BT002? I only have MM100 right now, if I were to order some Flora Danica, how would it taste different?

6 - I would expect longer/higher temp cooking should result in less moist/firmer curds, but you are saying that after pressing you still get a moister cheese as releases less whey, that's interesting and not what I'd have assumed.

8 - Thanks, I'll include this step in my process in tomorrow's 4 US gallons/15.2 liters whole milk Gouda making.

9 - Any advice, experiences with different weights?

Again, thanks for your advice, John.

Offline Sailor Con Queso

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Re: Gouda Cheese Making: Four Recipes Compared
« Reply #5 on: August 15, 2009, 04:31:13 PM »
Aroma B or Flora Danica = MM100 +_ LM57
LM57 is (LMC) Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris.
This bacterium does 3 things - thickens the cheese somewhat, adds additional diacetyl flavor, and produces a small amount of CO2. So it all depends on what you want. The proportions of the different cultures and species is what makes it YOUR cheese.

Higher cooking temp or longer time makes the curd firmer so it doesn't give up whey as easily.

For pressing under whey. I line my 6" hoop with cheesecloth and literally put it in my whey pot with the top of the hoop above the waterline. I then put about 1/3 of the curd in the cheesecloth/hoop and press pretty firmly by hand. I add the next 1/3, press, add 1/3 and press. I then pull the hoop, cloth, and curds out and drain for about 1 minute just to reduce the fluids. All without ever letting the curds cool down. Then I move it to my press and use 15# for about 15 minutes and then flip. After that, it's your choice.

My final press on Gouda is 50# on a 6" wheel.

A moldy Stilton is a thing of beauty. Yes, you eat the rind. - Ed
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Offline John (CH)

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Re: Gouda Cheese Making: Four Recipes Compared
« Reply #6 on: August 15, 2009, 05:30:57 PM »
Sailor Con Queso

Thanks for info and on placing your curds into hoop directly in the whey rather than as I did today, pre-pressing in whey and then packing into hoop outside of whey. I'll try your method next time. Also thanks for pressing weight. I've currently got about 80 pounds on mine so I'll shorten the pressing time.

Offline Wayne Harris

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Re: Gouda Cheese Making: Four Recipes Compared
« Reply #7 on: August 15, 2009, 06:33:37 PM »
First of all, this is a fantastic Thread. This thread is why i love this forum.


How long will you age this John?
Wayne A. Harris - in vino veritas

Offline DeejayDebi

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Re: Gouda Cheese Making: Four Recipes Compared
« Reply #8 on: August 15, 2009, 08:55:55 PM »
When it's a washed curd I always scoop the curds to one side with a mat then put the mold in the vat. As I scoop the curds into the molds I lift the mold up out of the whey and give it a shake to settle the curds and press it down with my fist. Very tricky with the 3 kg molds they took up most of the vat.

This is another place to use your siphoned bottles of whey - pressing weights in the whey.

Offline John (CH)

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Re: Gouda Cheese Making: Four Recipes Compared
« Reply #9 on: August 16, 2009, 11:06:33 AM »
Wayne, no idea how long I'll age the current batch, hopefully a couple of years, but more probably a couple of weeks ;D.

Debi, just saw how you pre-pressing your curds in mold in whey when making Jarlsberg, like Sailor Con Queso above does, thanks for those pictures, helps explain.

Offline DeejayDebi

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Re: Gouda Cheese Making: Four Recipes Compared
« Reply #10 on: August 16, 2009, 12:33:55 PM »
I think the bigger your batch size the more important the pre-pressing step becomes. Unless you are really fast (which I am not) the curds cool very quickly with the AC on in the summer.

Offline John (CH)

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Re: Gouda Cheese Making: Four Recipes Compared
« Reply #11 on: August 16, 2009, 01:02:59 PM »
Debi

I think the pre-pressing step is always important but that the two home size recipes above skip it for simplicity.

Also, in commercial recipes above, they don't mention about temp losses when final pressing, I think as huge amounts of curds thus retains more heat. But for small volumes like us, Debra 200 says "pour some of whey through mold to preheat" and Ricky says transfer pre-pressed curds quickly to mold. So your and Sailor's method of pre-pressing in the mold directly in the whey should keep it nice and warm :).