Welcome to the Forum Run.
As per your questions, as far as I know nothing will kill you, if it tastes off don't eat it, but dissect it to see how everything knitted together and how the rind is different from the center and so on. You can learn a lot from taking apart a cheese you can't eat. Oh, the worst you can get is food poisoning, and that would be the extreme, I would think, but you would only get that by consuming too much of a spoiled cheese. If you have enough strength to write a post you're fine
There are many 'instant gratification' cheese you can make. 30 Minute Mozzarella comes to mind as well as Ricotta and so on, visit the other sections of this board and you'll find some recipes there. Most soft cheeses are ready in a timely manner.
The best thing about Star San is it's an acid base, not burn you acid but citric (I believe or something along those lines), so you can use it without rinsing it off and it won't affect your wine or beer. Now having said that and hearing it from top brew sources I still always let it dry or rinse it off before using an item dunked in it, not because you'll get sick as if dish-soap were still in a glass (it's completely harmless in the diluted form you'll use), but as I don't want the acid in it to change the acid in what I'm making, this could totally baseless but it's easier than calling the manufacturer.
As being anal about sanitation take it seriously but with Star San it's really easy. I just have a 3 gallon bucket and mix it according to directions and stick everything that will fit in the bucket I'm going to use that day. Then I take it out, as long as it's been in a few minutes, rinse it in the sink and go. As far as ahead prep do what Wayne said and get a spray bottle of the mix and water and spray down your counters and the area you're going to use, wait a few minutes and go, no need to wipe it off, but you can.
As far as the sourness I can't comment until you post a recipe you used, you can just say you used the ricki carroll farmhouse and we'll know, but if it's something else let use know. Then list what you're ingredients were and where you got them and if you used the correct amounts, the ripening time and so forth. That'll give us a better understanding of your situation.