Author Topic: Gluten Free Bread  (Read 1835 times)

Offline Anjuli503

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Gluten Free Bread
« on: January 09, 2012, 07:13:36 PM »
Anyone have any history in making Gluten Free Bread? I have made several attempts and they have turned out ok, but I am really looking for that "perfect" recipe! To be even more specific I would love a "perfect" bread machine recipe  (i dont have the specific gf machine)!


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Offline Tomer1

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Re: Gluten Free Bread
« Reply #1 on: January 09, 2012, 10:22:48 PM »
The problem is that bread simply doesnt rise without gluten stracture hense baking aids to form alternative "stractural support" are required usually various gums,not to mention that it lacks the lexture of wheat breads.
How sensitive to gluten are you? can you ean non wheat grains just as rye? 
Teff is also a good grain which can be used to make bread.
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Offline Anjuli503

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Re: Gluten Free Bread
« Reply #2 on: January 10, 2012, 05:45:53 PM »
I have celiac so no wheat rye or barley. I use guar and xanthan gum and have perfected other recipes such as muffins, and pizza. Its just the loaf of bread this is giving me issues. Usually crumbly,dense, or doesnt hold up well to tomatoes. Anyone used flax seed as their binder? If so does it find that "gluteney" quality better than the gums?

Offline linuxboy

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Re: Gluten Free Bread
« Reply #3 on: January 10, 2012, 06:24:53 PM »
If you ferment out dough with a starter that includes lactobacilli to make it a slow fermented bread, the gluten will be hydrolyzed, and it should be safe for you to eat. It does require a proper technique (traditional-based), and does depend a little on strain selection. You can also speed up the process by adding enzymes for conversion.
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Offline Anjuli503

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Re: Gluten Free Bread
« Reply #4 on: January 10, 2012, 06:33:40 PM »
Humm that sounds very interesting.  I will have to do some more research. Do you have any links? or recommended books?


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Offline linuxboy

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Re: Gluten Free Bread
« Reply #5 on: January 10, 2012, 06:44:29 PM »
There is a huge lack of information on this out there. About the only rigorous study was done by Raffaella Di Cagno and that team in Italy. There is a rich anecdotal tradition that suggests that slow, long fermentation hydrolyzes enough gluten to make it a nonissue.
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Offline anutcanfly

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Re: Gluten Free Bread
« Reply #6 on: January 10, 2012, 07:21:54 PM »
Thanks linuxboy!  That's very helpful to know as my sweetheart has sensitivities to gluten.  I'll spend some time seeing what I can unearth and post if I find anything worth passing on.
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Offline DeejayDebi

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Re: Gluten Free Bread
« Reply #7 on: January 10, 2012, 07:41:29 PM »
My son was recently (after 2 years of being told he was whacked) diagnosed with celiac and the toughest thing I have found is bread! biscuits no problem cakes easy but bread ... dang! I finally found an eddible pizza dough that I have been tweaking by this lady named Rebecca Reilly. she is supposed to be a MASTER gluten free bread maker.  http://delightfullyglutenfree.com/2008/11/recipes-from-rebecca-reilly/

Gluten-Free Master Dough
This recipe makes enough for two 12-inch gluten-free  pizzas, six pizza pockets or one large focaccia. I often use it to make one pizza and 3 pizza pockets. No need to let the dough rise; it puffs up nicely in the oven.

2½ cups gluten-free high-protein flour blend of choice
½ cup millet flour
1 tablespoon xanthan gum
1 teaspoon salt
2 teaspoons chopped dry or 1 tablespoon chopped fresh rosemary, optional
5 teaspoons instant active dry yeast
1⅓ cups warm water
2 tablespoons olive oil
1 tablespoon honey
1 teaspoon cider vinegar

1. Preheat oven to 450° F. If using a pizza stone, place it on the lowest rack before preheating the oven. Do this 30 to 60 minutes ahead so the stone is very hot. If you’re not using a stone, it’s not necessary to preheat the oven for an extended period of time.

2. In the bowl of a heavy-duty mixer fitted with the paddle attachment, combine the high-protein blend, millet flour, xanthan gum, salt and rosemary, if used. Blend well. Add the yeast and blend.

3. In a small bowl, combine water, oil, honey and vinegar. Add to dry ingredients.

4. Beat at medium-high speed for 3 to 5 minutes or until the dough thickens.

She has a Bread Book I ordered a few days ago. I will keep you posted!

Offline Tomer1

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Re: Gluten Free Bread
« Reply #8 on: January 10, 2012, 11:15:37 PM »
You should really look into teff, to my understanding its safe to for celiacs.
And you can make terrific bread (which accually rises) from it and it has a unique nutty flavor.
Its fairly sticky like rye so you need to learn how to work with it.  I reckon you can even try using the no knead method to preper the bread.
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Offline linuxboy

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Re: Gluten Free Bread
« Reply #9 on: January 10, 2012, 11:44:27 PM »
I've made some amazing breads from teff, totally agree. I have used a fermented, no-knead approach before with it, and it tends to work well when the mother is left to ferment overnight. Also works well for injera.
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Offline anutcanfly

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Re: Gluten Free Bread
« Reply #10 on: January 11, 2012, 12:29:13 PM »
I was nosing about and there are several recipes for teff that look worth trying.

I found an article on fermented wheat.  I keep looking for more when I have time.


About Fermented Wheat Protein and Gluten Intolerance

It is not wheat itself that is problematic for celiacs, nor is it even gluten, strictly speaking. The offending protein is actually a small portion of the gluten protein known as gliadin. A specific sequence of amino acids in this protein triggers an immune response in gluten intolerant individuals, and that is the basis of celiac disease and several other forms of gluten sensitivity. The other protein present in the gluten molecule, glutenin, is believed to be relatively harmless to celiacs.

In theory, if these few amino acids could be altered, gluten protein could be rendered harmless to celiacs. Too good to be true? Maybe not. A 2004 study published in the academic journal Applied and Environmental Microbiology found long-duration fermentation of sourdough bread resulted in a product significantly more tolerable to celiac patients than untreated bread.

Building on this evidence, A 2007 study published in the same journal used a particular strain of bacteria to degrade the offending proteins. This treatment was able to completely hydrolyze the gliadin; in other words, to break it down into its component amino acids and remove the sequence of amino acids that trigger reactions in celiac patients. Glutenin, the less-harmful molecule in the gluten protein, was reduced by 80 percent. The resulting flour was found to be suitable for baking, and researchers speculated that with further study, this form of fermentation could potentially render wheat protein harmless to the gluten intolerant.

Is Sourdough Bread Safe for Celiacs?

As with many foods, the answer to this question is clearly 'maybe.'

A 2007 study published in the journal Food Microbiology concluded fermentation by sourdough lactobacilli represented a promising technology to make wheat bread suitable for celiacs. Moreover, a 2009 study in the same publication reached a similar conclusion. If this is indeed the case, why has there not been a stampede of hungry celiacs racing to the local specialty baker?

So far, the Celiac Disease Foundation, the Celiac Sprue Association and the Canadian Celiac Association have remained curiously silent on the subject, with none of the advocacy groups offering official statements on fermented wheat protein and gluten intolerance. Similarly, neither the American Dietetic Association or the Dieticians of Canada have voiced any opinion on the subject. Even though the science appears to be solid, with no authoritative bodies backing up the claims and no large-scale studies in place, few celiacs are willing to place their health in jeopardy based on preliminary studies.

If you have mild gluten sensitivity and are considering trying fermented wheat products, consult your physician before you make any decisions. While early evidence looks promising, most of the studies involved have been on a small scale or have used laboratory analysis, but not human subjects. Wheat fermentation may be the answer gluten intolerant consumers have been looking for, but more research appears to be needed before any official safety recommendations can be made.
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Offline Tomer1

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Re: Gluten Free Bread
« Reply #11 on: January 11, 2012, 01:59:23 PM »
I suppose its better to be safe then sorry.     
The home baker has no way to asses if the product is safe or not and can pottentially damage himself.

Buckwheat Soba makes a great pasta alternative. :)
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Offline anutcanfly

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Re: Gluten Free Bread
« Reply #12 on: January 11, 2012, 03:50:02 PM »
This article mentions a test you can buy to determine how much gluten is left in fermented bread.  Something to look into.  The article below is a little friendlier to read and cover the what's known pretty well.  In yet another article mention was made that the 1950's was when bread which used to undergo a long ferment was replaced by bread produced in a few hours.  I'll look into that later...


Sourdough and Gluten II

Last weekend, I wrote a post about the capacity of sourdough fermentation to remove all significant traces of gluten contamination from gluten-free bread.  I asked if any readers had seen studies exploring whether sourdough fermentation might also reduce gluten in bread made from gluten grains, like wheat.

Reader Max sent me a link to this study, suggesting it looked promising.  He was right; it’s fascinating.

The team of scientists created a sourdough fermented bread using 30% wheat flour, and 70% flour made from grains determined to be safe for people with celiac disease (oat, millet, buckwheat). They fermented the wheat-containing portion of the dough for 24 hours, using select strains of lactobacillus that are especially good at breaking down gluten.  After 24 hours, they added more non-wheat flour, fermented it for another two hours, and baked it.  As a control, they made a second dough with the same ratio of flours, using yeast as a rising agent.

The result: tested on 17 celiac patients, 13 had no reaction to the sourdough fermented bread that included 30% wheat flour.  The other four apparently had no reaction to either the sourdough bread or the yeast-risen bread (which confused me).

This team produced a wheat-containing bread that people with gluten intolerance could eat.  This is striking.  Currently, those with celiac disease and other serious gluten intolerance must avoid all gluten-containing products.  While there are other reasons to reduce or avoid eating significant amount of grains, the ability to treat gluten grains in a way that those with gluten intolerance could tolerate is remarkable.  The phrase “have your cake and eat it too” comes to mind.  Best, the method used is based on an ancient, traditional practice.

This wasn’t the team’s only study on the sourdough fermentation and gluten. The 30% wheat study was a follow-up to the team’s previous study where, mimicking the typical process used for a wheat bread in Italy, they’d looked at gluten reduction in a 100% wheat bread that fermented four to eight hours.  This process reduced the gluten, but did not eliminate it.

A few years after the success of the 30% wheat study, the team decided to approach the 100% wheat bread idea again with another study.  This time, they fermented the bread for 24 hours.  They also introduced three new variables.  The 30% wheat study had a particular mix of lactobacilli; this study used that mix again, and called it S1.  Then, they introduced another group of six strains of Lactobacilli sanfranceiscensis (yes, the kind original to San Francisco sourdough) which are particularly good at breaking down the relevant peptides.  This was designated S2.  On top of that, they experimented with fungal protease enzymes, from two different kinds of Aspergilllus.  One, from A. oryzae is traditionally used to ferment miso in Japan.  They called this E1.  The second was from A. niger (E2).  They baked sourdough fermented bread using a combination of these four variables.  They analyzed gluten content of bread made six different ways:
-A yeast-risen control dough
-Sourdough made with S1
-Sourdough made with S2
-Sourdough made with S2 and E1
-Sourdough made with S2 and E2
-Sourdough made with S2, E1 and E2.

All fermentation batches (that is, everything but the yeast bread) reduced the gluten significantly.  The second through fifth batches reduced the gluten by 73%, 83%, 93%, and 98% respectively.  However, the final group, using the L. sanfranciscensis and both enzymes, reduced the gluten drastically -- from the yeast bread’s nearly 75,000 parts per million (ppm) to a miniscule 12 ppm, well below the threshold making it safe for those with celiac disease.  With carefully-selected lactic acid bacteria and two enzymes, the team created a 100% wheat bread safe for people with celiac disease to eat.

I’m amazed.  Maybe I shouldn’t be.  I mean, fermentation has been around for pretty much as long as we’ve had foods that could be fermented. Cultures are smart and tend to figure out how to make foods digestible and nutrients available.  Unfortunately, we’ve lost or nearly lost a lot of that traditional knowledge.  But it’s always gratifying when research validates ancient cultural practices.

By the way, if the bread research wasn’t tantalizing enough, bread isn’t the only wheat-based food this group has looked at (see also this summary of sourdough and celiac).  Leave it to a team of Italians to research ways to make pasta more accessible.  It seems sourdough fermentation might reduce gluten in pasta too.  I sense a new cooking project in my future. 

Three final thoughts of caution before we all go swimming in vats of sourdough starter.  First, make sure there’s a lifeguard at all tim--- Ahem.  First, these studies were done with carefully selected strains of bacteria.  I can’t promise you that sourdough projects at home will reduce gluten to the same degree.  If you have celiac disease and want to experiment with this, consider testing your final product for gluten levels (you can buy testing kits here; I’ve never tried them).

Second, scientists are still learning about celiac disease and gluten intolerance.  There may be some detrimental aspect of wheat that is not broken down through sourdough fermentation, but which hasn’t yet been recognized.  This is just a speculation, but it’s the kind of thing that’s always worth keeping in mind.

Third, while I do think properly treated (soaked, sprouted, sourdough fermented), a moderate amount of grains can included in a good diet, I don’t consider them among the best foods for anyone.  For some people they may not really work as part of an optimal diet at all, perhaps those with severe metabolic syndrome.  Grains are also full of antinutrients and proteins that interfere with nutrient absorption and metabolism regulation, like feelings of satiety (being full).  Aside from breaking down gluten, processes like fermentation break these down.  But can fermentation (or soaking or sprouting) break down all of the nasties for all grains?  Probably not.

I prioritize eating fresh, local, and sustainably produced meats, vegetables, fats, fish, fruit, nuts, dairy (especially fermented dairy), chocolate (yes, it’s a food group), and things like that.  Still, grains, including gluten grains, have their advantages.  They’re inexpensive, widely produced, and serve as a tasty base for all sorts of sauces and proteins, fats and vegetables. 

I don’t have celiac disease, but based on digestive experiences, I do think I’m at least somewhat gluten intolerant.  I’ve reduced wheat to almost nothing in my diet, and have been surprised that I miss wheat bread and pasta much less than I would have thought.  Still, sometimes a piece of crusty bread with butter is, well, crusty bread with butter.  For those with gluten intolerance, an occasional piece may not be so far out of reach.


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Offline DeejayDebi

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Re: Gluten Free Bread
« Reply #13 on: January 12, 2012, 04:11:57 PM »
I haven't seen or heard of this "teff" stuff yet, but like I said this is all brand new to me. My son was diagnoised the week after Thanksgiving and I found out Christmas Day. I found very little available locally and the bread was just awful! Expensive but awful! He is also a white bread boy (my boy but he is 35) and tells me I only like bird seed biscuits. I personally love dark grainy breads so teff sounds good to me but i don't know about the kid.

Can you share some of your sucessfull recipes with this teff and I will try them on the boy.

Offline Tomer1

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Re: Gluten Free Bread
« Reply #14 on: January 12, 2012, 05:29:13 PM »
You can look at any whole rye (100%) sourdough bread recipe and replace rye for teff.   (like rye, teff should be acidificied by means of starter to get good bread and control enzymatic activity).

Bear in mind teff is fairly expenssive (about 4-6 times more then high quality wheat flour) but not as expenssive as buying the aweful ready made stuff you tasted.

Oh and did I mention its sticky? :P
The crumb will also likely be fairly dense, nothing like the open texture-airy quality of the white bread you know.
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