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CHEESE TYPE BOARDS (for Cheese Lovers and Cheese Makers) => RENNET COAGULATED - Hard Cooked (Swiss) => Topic started by: Alpkäserei on February 28, 2013, 08:39:23 PM

Title: Emmentaler Rezept, auf Wunsch!
Post by: Alpkäserei on February 28, 2013, 08:39:23 PM
Here is my take on an Emmentaler recipe as requested by a few members here on the forums.

A few notes first,

First, there is no 'H' in the spelling of the name of the Emmental region, or its associated cheese, Emmentaler

This is based on my knowledge of Alpine cheeses in the canton of Bern, Switzerland which I learned in person from a very fine cheese maker, and also supplemented with some other research into the incredible diversity of this small region.

However, I did not learn to make Emmentaler cheese, and I do not produce this cheese. For me it is not worth it. I cannot make a better product than Swiss Emmentaler which is readily available in the US at a lower price than I can afford to charge. So I must base my approach on similar cheeses that I know.

There are a few things to note on this wise,
We make our cheeses in such a way as to suppress the growth of Proprianic Shermannii. We do not desire this bacteria and its associated flavor. emmentaler relies on this bacteria, and is produced and aged in such a ways as to encourage its growth.

But we can adjust to make this cheese if we understand this fact.

So in addition to my knowledge of Alpine style, I add information to it about the specifics of PS growth, and also I take information from technical documents outlining the laws governing how Swiss Emmentaler is to be produced.

So at long last, here is my recipe:

Ingredients:
6 gallons top quality milk. A Cheese like Emmentaler requires good milk.
1/8 tsp. TA 61 culture
1/8 tsp. LH culture
1/8 tsp. P. Shermannii.
3/16 tsp powdered calf rennet OR
1 1/2 tsp liquid calf rennet
Salz

Note one thing,
I don't use starter cultures, I use my own cultures passed on through whey and if I do start from a powder, I never use it directly but first make a yogurt type culture. So these amounts may be off. If you think to use different amounts, feel free to do so. However, with careful cheesemaking practices exact amounts of culture are not overly important. There is an acceptable range.

Directions:

Culture milk at 91 degrees. With a powdered starter, it may be advisable to let it set for 20 to 30 minutes to incubate.
Add rennet at 91 degrees. Stir very thoroughly. It is important to mix rennet in properly.
If using powdered rennet, first dissolve into warm water with a pinch of salt, then add slowly to milk. It is a good practice to use a syringe to add rennet.
Allow to coagulate for 30 minutes.

[I am going to skip out on my descriptions of rennet amounts and procedures here, assuming you already know my practices, or have a good feel for your own methods. All I will say here is make sure your rennet is measured out with the proper amount according to its strength to set the milk in 30 minutes]

With a large knife, cut a series of parallel lines about 1 inch apart, then cut another set of lines 1" apart at a right angle to the first set.
With a large spoon, or a saucer or other suitable tool, turn over the top of the curd and then stir slowly for 10 minutes, cutting the large chunks as you go. Aim to have 1" chunks by the end of 10 minutes.
With a whisk, stir slowly for 10 minutes first in a circular pattern, then in an 8 pattern. Aim to have curds 1/4 inch by the end of 10 minutes and as uniform as possible.

Stir very slowly with a large spoon or spatula for about 20 minutes, do not allow the curd to clump, but do not stir so fast as to further break the curd

Heat slowly over a period of 30 to 40 minutes to a temperature of 124 degrees. Stir slowly and constantly.

Immediately remove curd into the form. The form should be sized such that the final cheese will be about 4 or 5 inches in height. I recommend a solid mold with no bottom, but use whatever you have available.
Knead curd into form, pressing out excess whey with your hands.

Press warm, for a cheese this small this may mean under warm whey. For a larger cheese, we would wrap it in a towel or some thermal material.

Press for 5 minutes then turn,
Press for 10 minutes and turn
Press for 20 minutes and turn

After this point it should be knit and can be removed from heat/uncovered. We do not want to keep it warm too long, or our PS will not thrive.

press for 40 minutes and turn
Press for 1 hour and turn
Press for 2 hour and turn
Press for 4 hours and turn
Press overnight

In the morning, remove to salt brine. Brine should be about 50 to 55 degrees.
Brine for 6 to 8 hours This cheese does not need to be very salty, unlike my Alpkäse which is a salty cheese.

Store cheese in a cool room for 7 to 10 days, washing daily to establish a rind (you can find my washing procedures elsewhere)
Cool room should be 50 to 60 degrees, 70 to 90% RH

Store cheese in a warmer room 65 to 75 degrees, 70 to 90% RH for 3 to 4 weeks. Turn weekly and wipe down as needed. The cheese will sweat out fat, so do not be alarmed. Also, depending on conditions and rind strength you may need to watch for volunteer molds.

Remove back to cool storage and let age for at least 120 days (this is the standard required for Swiss Emmentaler) and up to 18 months.
Title: Re: Emmentaler Rezept, auf Wunsch!
Post by: H-K-J on March 04, 2013, 12:00:45 PM
Alp,
I will be using this (already stole it Uhmm, copied it to word).
about time to start a new one, I will change the amount of the cultures, but I think this will work excelent ^-^
Title: Re: Emmentaler Rezept, auf Wunsch!
Post by: Al Lewis on March 04, 2013, 01:04:04 PM
Let me know how much of the cultures you use .  I plan on doing this, when I get better, but also would like to change the amount.
Title: Re: Emmentaler Rezept, auf Wunsch!
Post by: Sailor Con Queso on March 04, 2013, 02:06:12 PM
In the production of Swiss-type cheese two successive fermentations occur. First, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), particularly convert lactose to lactate. Then, during ripening, propionic acid bacteria (PAB) convert lactate to propionic acid, acetic acid and carbon dioxide. CO2 is responsible for eye formation and propionic acid produces the typical nutty/sweet flavor of Swiss-type cheese.

There are different subspecies of Propionic available that have different temperature and environmental requirements. Typically though Propionic needs at least 62F to do its thing. The sweet spot for optimal growth is usually between 77F and 95F. Homemade Swiss can easily fail to produce eyes or much propionic flavor because of a warm room ripening that is too cool.
Title: Re: Emmentaler Rezept, auf Wunsch!
Post by: H-K-J on March 04, 2013, 04:16:51 PM
The sweet spot for optimal growth is usually between 77F and 95F. Homemade Swiss can easily fail to produce eyes or much propionic flavor because of a warm room ripening that is too cool.
If this being the case, this is more than likely where I failed.
My warm room was bouncing back and forth between 66 and 74 deg.F, between that and the old newbie don't screw-up syndrome and OH MY GAWD wusapennin now, I just created a new fail :-[
On the bright side, Man that cheese tastes GOOOOOOoooouuud ;D 
Title: Re: Emmentaler Rezept, auf Wunsch!
Post by: Alpkäserei on March 04, 2013, 06:05:33 PM
Perhpas this is true, but these temperatures are what is required by Swiss law for the production of Swiss Emmentaler AOC
Title: Re: Emmentaler Rezept, auf Wunsch!
Post by: H-K-J on March 04, 2013, 06:27:55 PM
Alp,
are we still using a weight of 8 lbs. pressure to 1 lb. of cheese?
Title: Re: Emmentaler Rezept, auf Wunsch!
Post by: Sailor Con Queso on March 05, 2013, 08:00:34 AM
Alp - In a laboratory environment, the optimal temperature for Propionic is 77-95F. However, I did not mean to suggest that is the temperature you should use for the warm room/eye formation phase. IMHO it should be 70-72F or "normal" room temperature (about what you suggested). The low 60s can be really problematic and may not produce good results. At the lower temperatures the CO2 production is much slower and will tend to produce smaller and fewer eyes.
Title: Re: Emmentaler Rezept, auf Wunsch!
Post by: BobE102330 on March 05, 2013, 10:00:12 AM
Thanks for the PS discussion.  My first Jarlsberg attempt will now move from the 63 degree back bedroom to the warmer kitchen.
Title: Re: Emmentaler Rezept, auf Wunsch!
Post by: Sailor Con Queso on March 05, 2013, 12:02:54 PM
Bob - That's exactly what I mean. 63F is barely within the growth range for Propionic. You will get much better results at a little higher temperature. In this case, a few degrees makes a lot of difference.
Title: Re: Emmentaler Rezept, auf Wunsch!
Post by: Alpkäserei on March 05, 2013, 01:02:54 PM
My Apologies sailor, I misunderstood the nature of your comments.

I'd be interested to see some records of room temperatures that some of these failed emmentalers were aged at. It has caused me some amount of worry trying to understand why these did not work properly, I don't like it when I advise someone on something and it doesn't work right!

I have narrowed these down to 3 likely reasons for PS failure:

Excessive amounts of salt. As discussed elsewhere, this will inhibit PS growth. Part of the reason why non PS Alpine types are heavily salted.
Excessive culture and acidification. Too much acid is not good for PS either.
Too low temperature during PS growth stage.

It seems to me more and ore like the last one is at fault, which is good for me because the other two would be recipe problems.

PS does not grow optimally at 63 to 65, but it will grow. But, this is not in the growth range for a heavily PS's cheese like Emmentaler. It is perfectly suitable for a modern Gruyere type cheese where slight PS is good but heavy PS is bad. (as I have discussed elsewhere, the old Gruyere avoided PS). We have had cheese grow PS in them when our aging room got in the lower to mid 60s. For us, this is very bad.
Title: Re: Emmentaler Rezept, auf Wunsch!
Post by: Al Lewis on March 05, 2013, 01:23:15 PM
The strange part in my case was that I made an Emmentaler and a Jarlsberg using the same cultures and the same aging room/cave and the Jarlsberg tasted great but the Emmentaler had absolutely no taste of proprionic acid at all.
Title: Re: Emmentaler Rezept, auf Wunsch!
Post by: Sailor Con Queso on March 05, 2013, 04:42:09 PM
Propionic is very salt sensitive. The difference could be in the brining - concentration and/or timing.
Title: Re: Emmentaler Rezept, auf Wunsch!
Post by: Al Lewis on March 05, 2013, 07:02:06 PM
I'd have to go back and check but I don't think there was much difference in the recipes.  The Emmentaler may have brined longer.
Title: Re: Emmentaler Rezept, auf Wunsch!
Post by: H-K-J on March 06, 2013, 09:30:29 AM
I think I left my Emmentaler (http://cocker-spanial-hair-in-my-food.blogspot.com/2012/12/another-attempt-at-swiss-style-cheese.html) in the brine for 10 maybe 11 hours,
I was using a 20% brine solution not the saturated brine
A thought I had, that I pressed in hot whey to long and to heavy at the start, that and the 120# overnight press was maybe to much.
Title: Re: Emmentaler Rezept, auf Wunsch!
Post by: Alpkäserei on March 06, 2013, 09:45:48 AM
8 to 1 press facto
8 to 1 press factor
8 to 1 press factor
got it? ;)

This is the rule in Switzerland, and they make the best cheeses in the world so maybe we should pay attention  ;D

keeping the cheese warm is only necessary up to the point where the curd is knit. after this uncover it
too much salt looks to be a common problem here. how big was this cheese? those brining times look like maaybe more along the lines of an Alpkäse, which may be my fault too.
Title: Re: Emmentaler Rezept, auf Wunsch!
Post by: Alpkäserei on March 06, 2013, 10:17:49 AM
here is some more information from the Emmentaler Pflichtenheft, the document outlining the legal requirements for this cheese
these are a few guidelines of what is allowable
water added to milk.   0 to 12
coagulation.                 35 to 45 min
water added to curd    0 to 20%
heating                           52 to 54 c  in  30 - 60 minutes
pressing                        up to 20 hours, 500 to 2000 kg ( ypur numbers are much lower due to smaller cheese)
brine                               20-22 Be (a measure of salinity) 24 to 72 hours (for a giant 100 kg cheese
storage in warm room 19 to 24 c 70 to 90% rh 30 to 70 day
storage in aging room 11 to 14
dry aging                        70 to 90% r
wet aging                       obver 90% rh

note the option to add water at 2 points during the make process.
Title: Re: Emmentaler Rezept, auf Wunsch!
Post by: H-K-J on March 06, 2013, 02:06:49 PM
water added to milk.   0 to 12
water added to curd    0 to 20%
note the option to add water at 2 points during the make process.

0-12? (%, oz, cups?)
is there an advantage to add water? (expel whey, wash curd?)
If so, at which point would it be the most beneficial?
Title: Re: Emmentaler Rezept, auf Wunsch!
Post by: Alpkäserei on March 06, 2013, 02:17:39 PM
sorry i wrote that on my phone, which some times has the bad habit of deleting the last character on some lines.
some kind of software incompatibility apparently
those amounts are percentages
0 to 12 % water relative to milk amount can be added before rennet. should be same temp as milk
0 to 20% water relative to the 'bruch' which is the contents of the vat including curd and whey camn be added after curd is cut. same temp as bruch.
this works a lot like washing the curd, it reduces overall acidity and so results in a sweeter cheese.
note that this is water added, not whey replaced b water.
with a washed curd you remove whey and replace with hot water to raise temp=of the Bruch. with emmentaler if you use water you add same temp water to the Bruch and then raise the temp with direct heat as normal. So not really a washed curd, you could classify it as reduced acidity curd.
Title: Re: Emmentaler Rezept, auf Wunsch!
Post by: H-K-J on March 06, 2013, 02:28:30 PM
That sounds like it could help in the PS activity by cutting back on acidity, interesting 8)
Title: Re: Emmentaler Rezept, auf Wunsch!
Post by: Al Lewis on March 06, 2013, 02:29:28 PM
Very interesting.
 :o
Title: Re: Emmentaler Rezept, auf Wunsch!
Post by: H-K-J on March 06, 2013, 03:12:06 PM
8 to 1 press facto
8 to 1 press factor
8 to 1 press factor
got it? ;)

This is the rule in Switzerland, and they make the best cheeses in the world so maybe we should pay attention  ;D

keeping the cheese warm is only necessary up to the point where the curd is knit. after this uncover it
too much salt looks to be a common problem here. how big was this cheese? those brining times look like maaybe more along the lines of an Alpkäse, which may be my fault too.
Got it :)
I think I will lighten up on the press and under warm whey time and cut brine time down to circa 5 hours :-\
Title: Re: Emmentaler Rezept, auf Wunsch!
Post by: Alpkäserei on March 06, 2013, 03:28:07 PM
there are 3 ways which the Emmentaler varies from our Alpkäse. The first is obvious, it is proprianic. But the other two always puzzled me until I studied the pflichtenheft. It is softer, and it is sweeter. This was strange because the cooking and brewing stages ware nearly identical, and Emmentaler is often cooked higher than our cheese. We also use the same cultures.
the secret, I have found, lies in 2 minor variations early in production. First is the addition of water. %his accounts for the sweetness but not necessarily the softness. The second is a slightly longer coagulation time. our cheese sets for 30 to 35 minutes. Emmentaler sets 35 to 40 minutes.This is why it is softer. This is also why Gruyere is softer than our cheese, even tough it has a somewhat more aggressive cooking stage.
I actually have varied my recipe a little bit from the Alpkäse in order to make a somewhat softer cheese. When it comes to modifying a basic recipe to achieve specific results, this is another area to adjust. 
Title: Re: Emmentaler Rezept, auf Wunsch!
Post by: H-K-J on March 06, 2013, 03:46:34 PM
Glad you brought up coagulation time, that was one of the points of change I am going to factor into my next Emmentaller, (a slightly longer flock time)
and now I will also try the added water, I think the 12% at the start would be easier, just because it would be warmed at the same time as the milk.
that way there is less hassle trying to keep water at the same temp as the heated milk.
Just my take at the moment (could change at any time ;))
Title: Re: Emmentaler Rezept, auf Wunsch!
Post by: Alpkäserei on March 06, 2013, 03:57:36 PM
I am not certain how effective the water at the beginning actually is. It could slow down the culture by diluting the lactose I guess
But adding water after cutting would seem more affective in reducing acid. thoug i might be off here.
Title: Re: Emmentaler Rezept, auf Wunsch!
Post by: tnbquilt on March 06, 2013, 07:53:36 PM

If this being the case, this is more than likely where I failed.
My warm room was bouncing back and forth between 66 and 74 deg.F, between that and the old newbie don't screw-up syndrome and OH MY GAWD wusapennin now, I just created a new fail :-[
On the bright side, Man that cheese tastes GOOOOOOoooouuud ;D

My first Swiss never made it back in the cave to age. When it started swelling, I left it out on the table, and it cracked and I cut it open and we ate it. It was delicious.
Title: Re: Emmentaler Rezept, auf Wunsch!
Post by: green zebra on March 06, 2013, 08:00:05 PM
I am going to make some Emmental this weekend and will go with an 8 gallon size. 200 easy homemade cheeses, suggests making this size in two batches and i am fortunate to have two 20 litre sized pots, so i will make the batches separately but at the same time.  ^-^

My question is what is equivalent to the LH culture?  I have none and would like to add a similar one along with the Thermo B. Ms. Caldwell suggests using Thermo B and Thermo C, of which i have both, but  was hoping to try something different.

Any suggestions?  Thank you!
Doris
Title: Re: Emmentaler Rezept, auf Wunsch!
Post by: Alpkäserei on March 07, 2013, 09:22:50 AM
If you make it in 2 batches, they HAVE to be made at the same time. We've discussed this 200 recipe 2 batch thing elsewhere. It won't work to make them at different times, they won't fuse together properly. Although apparently Morbier used to be made out of 2 batches made hours apart.

LH is Lactobacillus Helveticus

Any strain of Lactobacillus will work. There will be slight nuances to the flavor of different bacteria, but they are all similar enough for an Emmentaler.

So you can use anything that contains L. Delbrueckii, L. Bulgaricus, L. Helveticus, etc.

An Emmetaler needs 3 bacteria to work,
Streptococcus Thermophilus
Lactobacillus of some sort
P. Shermanii


As I think about the water issue, I come to the conclusion that it probably does not matter much when you are adding it, so long as it is the same temp as the milk/bruch. Adding water of a different temperature could trigger chemical changes, but adding water otherwise likely just dilutes the acid. Replacing whey actually removes acid, so has a more pronounced affect on pH. adding water is probably a little more gentle and subtle
Title: Re: Emmentaler Rezept, auf Wunsch!
Post by: green zebra on March 07, 2013, 08:08:43 PM
Thank you Alp,
I will make the two batches at the same time and have decided to substitute LH100 with Thermo C. I just would like to see this cheese create its large holes!!

I had made a swiss some time ago and because the recipe was made with only 12 litres, using Ricki's recipe, my cheese did not bulge. When it was broken into, there were no holes! THEN i researched that this cheese is best made with large amounts of milk, so here i try again.

My mold of choice measures 7 3/4" diam x 7 1/2" tall. I had made a 5 gallon cheese in this mold and had room to spare, so i am hoping the 8 gallons will fit!
Title: Re: Emmentaler Rezept, auf Wunsch!
Post by: Alpkäserei on March 07, 2013, 08:32:23 PM
holes come from P. Shermanii. This is also the source of the signature flavor. This is a secondary culture also added to the milk that kicks in during the aging process.

If there are no holes and no bulging, there is not ps growth.

So you would need
Thermo B, Thermo C, and P Shermanii

Which is the same bacteria as if you would use a TA and LH plus PS, but maybe in different proportions.
Title: Re: Emmentaler Rezept, auf Wunsch!
Post by: linuxboy on March 07, 2013, 10:20:10 PM
Quote
THEN i researched that this cheese is best made with large amounts of milk, so here i try again.
You need to exceed a certain threshold for the thickness and width. At least 3" and no more than around 6-8" tall. The cheese needs to swell and if it is too thick, it doesn't work as it should. For the diameter, a bigger wheel helps with forming a good fuse of the curds, as there's more curd mass.
Title: Re: Emmentaler Rezept, auf Wunsch!
Post by: green zebra on March 08, 2013, 07:46:26 AM
I am making the emmentaler as i write this entry. I will use the mold i described and hope this size will produce a better scaled cheese.
The two 20 Litre pots are ripening at the same time so i am keeping a close watch.
The cultures being used are Thermo B and C and P. Shermanii
Hoping for a successful trial! ^-^
Title: Re: Emmentaler Rezept, auf Wunsch!
Post by: Alpkäserei on March 15, 2013, 11:20:58 AM
just curious zebra, how did your make go?
Title: Re: Emmentaler Rezept, auf Wunsch!
Post by: green zebra on March 15, 2013, 01:57:38 PM
Hi Alp!
I have attached a picture of my week old Emmentaler! You can barely see that it stands 4" tall and when i took it out of the press it weighed 8lb. This is an 8 gallon batch, two gallons of 2% & 6 gallons of whole milk.
Some bulging is starting to form. It smells good. Have to keep wiping off a thin dusting of white mold. I got the pH levels dead on, so i am happy with the results so far. I used both recipes from 200 Easy and Mastering Artisan cheesemaking books.  Recipes are similar except that Ms. Caldwell outlines the pH levels better than the other book. This one was easy to do but alot more slugging with the two pots!
I would make it again!
Doris