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CHEESE TYPE BOARDS (for Cheese Lovers and Cheese Makers) => RENNET COAGULATED - Hard Grana (Grating Cheesee) => Topic started by: bbracken677 on December 20, 2012, 12:01:27 PM

Title: Parmesan! (provided the worlds doesn't end Friday)
Post by: bbracken677 on December 20, 2012, 12:01:27 PM
Parmesan

Recipe based on “200 easy homemade cheese recipes”. Adjustments to the process made based on further research.  I have had problems during research of pegging definite pH targets…I put these together for now and will continue to research. If anyone knows what they should be, please let me know.  I have seen some specific conflicts, such as brine at 5.4 or press at 5.4?

At any rate, it is what it was and we will see. I plan on aging this for a year to be available next Christmas. 

I actually repeated this make the next day, in order to have 2 separate makes with identical recipes, however I did cook the curds a bit longer for the 2nd make.  I also made ricotta from the whey both days…so will be making lasagna soon!


pH targets:
rennet: 6.55-6.6
settle under whey at 6.40-6.45
drain: 6.4
brine: 5.3-5.4

Ingredients:
1 gallon whole raw milk
1.5 gallons non-fat pasteurized milk
2.0 cups heavy cream
1/4th teaspoon SuCasu Culture mix
1/8th teaspoon lipase powder
1/4th teaspoon 100% calcium chloride
5/16th teaspoon single strength liquid veal rennet (25 drops)
Saline (saturated) solution for brining


1.   Standardize milk to P/F ratio of 1.50
2.   Warm milk to 94F and add culture once there.
3.   Let ripen 45 minutes, maintaining temp at 94F.
4.   Add calcium chloride dissolved in 1/4th cup water.
5.   Add lipase dissolved in 1/4th cup water.
6.   Dilute rennet in 1/4th cup water and add after ripening period.
7.   Using 1.5 flocc multiplier cut curds after ___ minutes from the addition of rennet.  (I did a double take when I set my timer…with a flocc time of 12 minutes, I had to set my timer for 6 minutes…)
8.   Cut curds initially to 1/4th inch and then using a whisk reduce to lentil sized pieces.
9.   Let curds settle for 10 minutes.
10.   Heat curds and whey to 130F fairly quickly…30 minutes would be optimum. Keep stirring to distribute heat. The curds should shrink to the size of rice grains by time to press.
11.    Once you have reached the desired temp, maintain temp until curds begin to clump together. The final curd needs to be dry, but not so dry that they do not hold together when pressed.
12.   Drain whey and curds into a cloth lined colander. Reserve the whey.
13.   Fill prepared (warmed and sterilized) cloth lined mold with curds and transfer to press.
14.   Press under warm whey at 1 psi for 30 minutes. Flip and rewrap, press for another 30 minutes.
15.   Remove whey, flip, rewrap and press at 2 psi for 30 minutes. Flip, rewrap and press for another 30.
16.   Flip, rewrap and press at 3 psi for 12-16 hours.
17.   Place in cool (50F) brine for 30 hours, flipping occasionally.
18.   Remove from brine and dry at room temp for a day or 2 until rind is dry to the touch.

Affinage:
Age at 50F and 85-90% humidity for a minimum of 6-7 months. (I will be aging this for a year so it will be ready by next Christmas.) Flip cheese daily for the first couple weeks and then once weekly thereafter. After 3 months rub rind with olive oil and then again every 2-3 months.
If mold appears on the rind, wipe off with a cloth dipped in a vinegar-salt solution.

Result of first out of brine: 2 pounds 0.9 ounces. Result of 2nd out of the brine: 2 pounds .7 ounces.

The make seemed to go well, given I was flying blind pH wise....I felt I should have cooked the curds a bit longer, so the 2nd make I did just that. Will post the resulting weight tomorrow once it is out of the brine.

Edit: adjusted pH targets 
2nd Edit: added 2nd make weight
Title: Re: Parmesan! (provided the worlds doesn't end Friday)
Post by: linuxboy on December 20, 2012, 12:27:06 PM
Quote
If anyone knows what they should be, please let me know.  I have seen some specific conflicts, such as brine at 5.4 or press at 5.4?
I thought I answered in your other thread? Pressing at 5.4 is not accurate. You settle curds under whey at 6.4, which is very similar to a light press. Parm curds should be a full hunk of matted cheese when you lift them up after the bottom rest.

Quote
drain curds and hoop: 6.1-6.2?
This is too low. That above range is for romano and some pecorinos. It doesn't get that low for parm. No biggie, will just make for a slightly different cheese.

Quote
12.   Drain whey and curds into a cloth lined colander. Reserve the whey.
Skipping the settling step? Just for ease? Or are you subbing it with the under whey press later?


Title: Re: Parmesan! (provided the worlds doesn't end Friday)
Post by: Mike Richards on December 20, 2012, 12:34:08 PM
Looks good!  I have not experience to contribute, though.  I have been wanting to make Parmesan, but I've yet to get lipase.  Soon, though.  I'll be watching to see if other people come with a little more clarity on pH targets...oh, and LB just did.  Thanks!
Title: Re: Parmesan! (provided the worlds doesn't end Friday)
Post by: Sailor Con Queso on December 20, 2012, 01:25:19 PM
Parm is a thermo cheese so you drain and hoop at a higher pH. Then the cheese will continue to develop acidity as it presses. That's why draining at 6.1-6.2 is too low. Pressing at 5.4 is WAY, WHEY, WAY, too low.
Title: Re: Parmesan! (provided the worlds doesn't end Friday)
Post by: Schnecken Slayer on December 20, 2012, 01:37:34 PM
That has a nice smooth surface on it.
I wonder what the PH levels were. (I think you mentioned in another article you were looking at buying a PH meter soon.)
Title: Re: Parmesan! (provided the worlds doesn't end Friday)
Post by: Al Lewis on December 20, 2012, 02:02:53 PM
Which lipase did you use BB?  The mild or the sharp?
Title: Re: Parmesan! (provided the worlds doesn't end Friday)
Post by: bbracken677 on December 20, 2012, 02:06:43 PM
Parm is a thermo cheese so you drain and hoop at a higher pH. Then the cheese will continue to develop acidity as it presses. That's why draining at 6.1-6.2 is too low. Pressing at 5.4 is WAY, WHEY, WAY, too low.

Thanks Sailor!  Since I my pH meter went belly up a couple weeks ago, I have been cheesing blind anyway, but it will be nice to have some targets in place for my next make.

What should be the pH of the cheese after brining?  (after submitting this, I realized that the brining should stop/slow the acidifying...ergo, the post-brine pH should be 5.2-5.4?)
Title: Re: Parmesan! (provided the worlds doesn't end Friday)
Post by: bbracken677 on December 20, 2012, 02:16:06 PM

I thought I answered in your other thread? Pressing at 5.4 is not accurate. You settle curds under whey at 6.4, which is very similar to a light press. Parm curds should be a full hunk of matted cheese when you lift them up after the bottom rest.

So you did...and I totally forgot about that...thanks LB I will incorporate those into the recipe!  (shakes head) Can't believe I totally blanked that out..........

Quote
drain curds and hoop: 6.1-6.2?
This is too low. That above range is for romano and some pecorinos. It doesn't get that low for parm. No biggie, will just make for a slightly different cheese.

I was not able to measure the pH so I have no real idea what the pH was, however I was keeping a close watch on the behaviour of the curds, so I don't think I was too far off from the targets you provided by accident. The curds were almost like a cheddar mass when I placed them into the mold. Once I hit my target cook heat, I watched for the curds to start wanting to clump, which was my "target pH"...

Quote
12.   Drain whey and curds into a cloth lined colander. Reserve the whey.
Skipping the settling step? Just for ease? Or are you subbing it with the under whey press later?

Subbing it with the under whey press....in one description of the process the curds are settled and undergo smoothing by weight in the whey...with a 2.5 gallon make pressing under whey was the only way I could think of to match that.
Title: Re: Parmesan! (provided the worlds doesn't end Friday)
Post by: bbracken677 on December 20, 2012, 02:20:18 PM
Which lipase did you use BB?  The mild or the sharp?

That would be mild....more lipase might be recommended but I preferred to tone that down for my first make, just in case.

Perhaps 1/4 would be better?
Title: Re: Parmesan! (provided the worlds doesn't end Friday)
Post by: bbracken677 on December 20, 2012, 02:23:01 PM
That has a nice smooth surface on it.
I wonder what the PH levels were. (I think you mentioned in another article you were looking at buying a PH meter soon.)

I should have one by the time I am ready for my next make....I just bought an extech 110    :)

Yeah...I wonder also... lol   once you get used to making cheese with a meter, not having one makes you feel a bit blind. Would be like trying to make cheese without a thermometer almost.

The main reason for the smooth rind, I believe, would be pressing in the warm whey.
Title: Re: Parmesan! (provided the worlds doesn't end Friday)
Post by: Hovard on January 21, 2013, 09:01:35 AM
Nice cheese, BB. How you salted it ( not found in recipe )?
Title: Re: Parmesan! (provided the worlds doesn't end Friday)
Post by: bbracken677 on January 21, 2013, 09:52:52 AM
Step #17 Placed in brine for 30 hours.

Seems like a lot, and given the size of the cheese may very well be too much, but the rind was incredibly tight and well knit, so maybe not. I made 2 cheeses, so I may just have to crack one open at the 6 month mark to check on progress : )

They are both resting comfortably in my cave...there has been a small loss of moisture (weight), so a couple of weeks ago I coated in olive oil and will continue to give them a coat every month or so.
Title: Re: Parmesan! (provided the worlds doesn't end Friday)
Post by: Hovard on January 21, 2013, 10:24:07 AM
Sorry and thank you.
Title: Re: Parmesan! (provided the worlds doesn't end Friday)
Post by: bbracken677 on March 16, 2013, 12:57:30 PM
I couldnt resist: I just had to check and see what was going on inside so I cut one open today.

The flavor and texture are both spot on!  Mild parmesan flavor with a dry hard rind and a smooth, yet perfectly textured interior.

I need to make sure that the uncut one loses no more moisture, so I will probably oil it again and then bag it to age out to at least a year.

Very happy with this one and will let the 2nd wheel age out, while using the cut one as a table cheese. Even the wife loved it   ;D

I think I will have to do this again and put a couple more into deep storage to age out a year or more.
Title: Re: Parmesan! (provided the worlds doesn't end Friday)
Post by: Al Lewis on March 16, 2013, 01:06:31 PM
Glad to hear this BB.  I really want to do one of these cheeses as they are one of my favorites.  Like to try a 6 pound and age it out to at least 6 months.  Your success gives me added confidence.  A cheese to you for your patience and help!!  BTW  I looked up that culture to get some and it says it's for pecorino?  I have TA-61 on hand so I'll probably be using that.
Title: Re: Parmesan! (provided the worlds doesn't end Friday)
Post by: bbracken677 on March 16, 2013, 03:07:13 PM
Works well for just about any italian hard cheese. If you have the TA 61 though, use that...no need to make a special purchase just for Parmesan.

Title: Re: Parmesan! (provided the worlds doesn't end Friday)
Post by: Al Lewis on March 16, 2013, 03:33:56 PM
that's what I thought.  It says it's for parma style cheeses.
Title: Re: Parmesan! (provided the worlds doesn't end Friday)
Post by: Sailor Con Queso on March 16, 2013, 05:08:26 PM
TA-61 should be used in conjunction with LH-100.
Title: Re: Parmesan! (provided the worlds doesn't end Friday)
Post by: Al Lewis on March 16, 2013, 05:10:23 PM
I have both.  Thanks Sailor!!
Title: Re: Parmesan! (provided the worlds doesn't end Friday)
Post by: bbracken677 on March 17, 2013, 02:52:17 PM
I figured I should include some cheese porn pictures of what is left of the wheel:
Title: Re: Parmesan! (provided the worlds doesn't end Friday)
Post by: akhoneybee on March 27, 2013, 12:17:01 PM
great info here.  I'm getting my ph meter..........!
Title: Re: Parmesan! (provided the worlds doesn't end Friday)
Post by: bbracken677 on March 27, 2013, 01:13:09 PM
Thanks! I am really happy with the outcome. I only have half the wheel left now, and since we are going to have a cheese and wine party at work in a week and a half, I expect the rest to go then. Also going to take a cheddar and maybe crack open the cheshire I have aging, and maybe the asiago I made a couple months ago.
Title: Re: Parmesan! (provided the worlds doesn't end Friday)
Post by: bbracken677 on March 28, 2013, 06:39:29 AM
That is a gouda?   Nice job! 
Title: Re: Parmesan! (provided the worlds doesn't end Friday)
Post by: Boofer on March 28, 2013, 08:25:20 AM
Looks great...for a table cheese.  A cheese to you for a tasty-looking treat. :)

What is in the "SuCasu" culture mix?

Looks like you veered from the Parmesan recipe ingredients in 200 Easy recipes. It called for 2% milk. The cream you added takes it to a new level.

-Boofer-
Title: Re: Parmesan! (provided the worlds doesn't end Friday)
Post by: bbracken677 on March 28, 2013, 08:48:21 AM
The SuCasu mix is as follows:
Streptococcus thermophilus
Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis
Lactobacillus helveticus


I used 1.5 gallons of non fat milk and 2 cups of cream, so depending on the actual fat content of the raw milk I think I am just a little over the 2 % or so fat content of a parmesan, so yeah, I am off a bit, but I dont think it is significant.
Considering the result (at least to date, I have another wheel made the same time which will age out to a year) I think I was pretty close. The flavor is spot on, just mild and the texture is almost perfect...I am planning on another oiling of the one in the cave, and then will bag it an about another month to prevent further moisture loss.  I used some on top of a twice baked potato the other night and it melted much like I would expect a parm type to.

Thanks for the cheese!
Title: Re: Parmesan! (provided the worlds doesn't end Friday)
Post by: H-K-J on March 28, 2013, 12:12:48 PM
You can use Thermophilic LH series ((LB) Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp and (LH) Lactobacillus helveticus)
and Thermophilic Starter Series TA 61-62 ((ST) Streptococcus thermophilus)
same stuff as the SuCasu other than the proportions
Just sayin :)
Title: Re: Parmesan! (provided the worlds doesn't end Friday)
Post by: bbracken677 on March 28, 2013, 05:48:14 PM
I have an asiago I made using the same (sucasu) cultures and I will be cracking it early (based on Al's result on an early asiago) for a test in the next few days. After a taste I will decide whether to seal it and age further or go ahead and make it a table cheese. 

Cheese und crackers!

I got the sucasu based on it's listing description, however to do it again I would just buy the individual components for greater flexibility...we live and learn!
Title: Re: Parmesan! (provided the worlds doesn't end Friday)
Post by: Boofer on March 29, 2013, 07:48:16 AM
I got the sucasu based on it's listing description, however to do it again I would just buy the individual components for greater flexibility...we live and learn!
But if you have a culture mix that seems to do what you want, why not stay with it? Case in point, at varying times I like Kazu (LL, LC, LD, LH) and MA4001 (LL, LC, LD, ST). I really like Alp D (LL, LC, LD, ST, LH, LBL) and PLA (Brevibacterium linens, Arthrobacter nicotianae, Debaryomyces hanseii, Geotrichum candidum...2 forms of linens, a yeast, and Geo).

There are occasions when I feel like simple, less complicated is called for. Then I just go with a single strain like Aroma B.

-Boofer-
Title: Re: Parmesan! (provided the worlds doesn't end Friday)
Post by: Sailor Con Queso on March 29, 2013, 08:44:30 AM
You can use Thermophilic LH series ((LB) Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp and (LH) Lactobacillus helveticus) and Thermophilic Starter Series TA 61-62 ((ST) Streptococcus thermophilus) same stuff as the SuCasu other than the proportions

It's not just proportions. All bacteria are not created equal. The names may be the same, but the strains are different. You can get substantially different results using varying manufacturers or blends of bacteria. Acidification curves, flavor profiles, proteolysis, lipolysis, etc can all be different.
Title: Re: Parmesan! (provided the worlds doesn't end Friday)
Post by: H-K-J on March 29, 2013, 09:48:40 AM
yes you both bring out the obvious, all I was sayin for us backwoods cheese makers (ME) the fewer cultures I need to use up the less the cost per cheese
were as I only make a few cheeses I try to make them with what I have on hand,
with the few cultures I have I can make quite a few different cheese, all be it maybe not correctly (as I have embarrassingly shown on the forum) :-[
When I first decided to make cheese all I wanted to make was a blue that the wife and I would enjoy, yet after joining the forum I found out it isn't hard to make other cheese,
it is hard to get them right ;)
I am now fascinated with the process, I am a newbie in duh woods, and havin one heck of a good time experimentin ;D   
Title: Re: Parmesan! (provided the worlds doesn't end Friday)
Post by: bbracken677 on March 29, 2013, 09:57:51 AM

I am now fascinated with the process, I am a newbie in duh woods, and havin one heck of a good time experimentin ;D   

Ditto!  I enjoy the process as well as the successes...it's really nice getting a good result that is tasty, and the challenge to improve your process and the outcome is a huge part of it as well.


But if you have a culture mix that seems to do what you want, why not stay with it? Case in point, at varying times I like Kazu (LL, LC, LD, LH) and MA4001 (LL, LC, LD, ST). I really like Alp D (LL, LC, LD, ST, LH, LBL) and PLA (Brevibacterium linens, Arthrobacter nicotianae, Debaryomyces hanseii, Geotrichum candidum...2 forms of linens, a yeast, and Geo).

There are occasions when I feel like simple, less complicated is called for. Then I just go with a single strain like Aroma B.

-Boofer-

Boofer...I agree with you.  I have plenty of SuCasu left so I will be using that for some time with my italian makes. At the same time I see the advantage to having the basic components, so to speak, and be able to use them with more flexibility.  The downside is that I have no idea what the proportions are in SuCasu, and as Sailor put it there are differences in strains as well.

I too like the Alp D and Kazu. My best cheddars to date (havent opened many) seem to have been from the kazu tree. 

Good news is, I have lots of time to make up my mind which way to go   :)
Title: Re: Parmesan! (provided the worlds doesn't end Friday)
Post by: bbracken677 on March 29, 2013, 05:48:05 PM

1 cup milk = 8 or 9 grams protein
1 cup of cream = 96 grams fat

I had 1.5 gallons of non-fat milk so that amounts to 216 grams protein (with the milk I had)  and 2 cups of cream would be 192 grams of fat for a P/F ratio of 216/192 or 1.125.  The raw milk should have been somewhere in the 4% neighborhood which would  lower the P/F ratio.

It appears that perhaps I should have used just one and a half cups of cream.
Title: Re: Parmesan! (provided the worlds doesn't end Friday)
Post by: Boofer on March 30, 2013, 09:32:24 AM
the fewer cultures I need to use up the less the cost per cheese
I have stretched my cultures by using Sailor's mother culture process (http://cheeseforum.org/forum/index.php/topic,5165.msg86348.html#msg86348). A 1/32nd teaspoon of culture (MA4001, Alp D, Aroma B, TA61, etc.) fermented in a half gallon of milk gives me 64 one-ounce cubes. I use one vacuum bag of 8 cubes for a 4 gallon make. Works well. The unopened vacuum bag comes out of the freezer and is submerged in a bowl of tepid water to gently thaw the cubes. It doesn't take long and then the mother culture is ready to be added to the milk.

Let me repeat myself: 1/32 tsp culture makes eight 4-gallon cheeses.  8)

-Boofer-
Title: Re: Parmesan! (provided the worlds doesn't end Friday)
Post by: JeffHamm on March 30, 2013, 01:04:59 PM
I do this as well and 3 or 4 ice cubes works well for a 10-11 litre make.  I just put the cubes in the milk before I start warming it to starting temperature, and that works fine for me.

- Jeff
Title: Re: Parmesan! (provided the worlds doesn't end Friday)
Post by: Boofer on March 30, 2013, 08:16:00 PM
I just put the cubes in the milk before I start warming it to starting temperature, and that works fine for me.
Yeah, I tried that first, but didn't like waiting for the cubes to melt. :)

-Boofer-
Title: Re: Parmesan! (provided the worlds doesn't end Friday)
Post by: JeffHamm on March 31, 2013, 12:05:07 AM
Hi,

I just starting warming the milk, and they melt as it comes up to 30 C (or whatever the target temp is).  Seems to work fine.

- Jeff