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    GLOSSARY

    220 terms listed alphabelically . . .

    A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

    Terms Starting With A

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    Terms – Alphabetical

    A Point

    • French phase pronounced “a pwan” and means the point.
    • The term means that a cheese is at its peak of its development, neither under or over ripe and thus at its optimal point to be eaten.

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    Acid Curd

    • A curd that is coagulated using acetic or lactic acid rather than rennet.

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    Acidic

    • A term used to describe a cheese with a lightly sour in flavour.

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    Acidity

    • The level of acid in milk.
    • The cheese maker must know the acidity level before proceeding to the next phase of cheesemaking.
    • Normally measured using the pH scale.

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    Acrid

    • A term used to characterize cheese that is sharp, bitter or irritating in taste or smell.

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    Affinage

    • The French word for the art of curing cheese to maturity by monitoring all aspects to assure proper development.

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    Affine

    • The process of ripening cheese.
    • The French word meaning to finish or refine. For example a washed-rind cheese may be affine au marc de borgogne, meaning the rind has been washed with brandy during curing.

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    Affinuer

    • A person well practiced in the art of affinage and thus who often manages the cave in which cheeses are aged.
    • Not normally the person who makes the cheese.

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    Aftertaste

    • The last flavor sensation perceived after tasting a cheese.
    • Pronounced aftertastes usually detract from the pleasure of a cheese.

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    Alpage

    • The French word for the movement of animals and herds people high into the mountains for summer grazing.

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    Alpine Lace

    • A semi hard cheese with white irregular holes. Contains lower sodium and cholesterol.

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    Aged

    • A cheese that is matured to develop flavor.
    • Can refer to a cheese that is as young as two or three weeks, but usually it refers to cheeses that are matured months to several years.
    • Aged cheeses are characterized as having more pronounced and fuller, sometimes sharper flavours than medium-aged or current-aged cheeses.

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    Aging

    • The process of holding cheeses in carefully controlled environments to allow the development of microorganisms that break down protein and fats in cheese thereby accentuating the basic cheese aromas and flavours and inducing textural changes.
    • Also known as maturing.
    • Also known as ripening.
    • Also known as curing.

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    Aizy

    • French word for home cultured starter, sometimes combining starter and rennet.

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    Albuminous

    • Protein Milk proteins that cannot be precipitated out during normal coagulation.

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    Alpages

    • French word for high mountain pastures used for summer grazing.

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    Ame

    • French word for the heart of the cheese, often in reference to the visible whiter centre of Brie or Camembert before it has ripened all the way through.

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    American

    • A descriptive term used to identify the group of American originated cheeses such as Colby and Monterey Jack.

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    Ammoniated

    • A term that describes a cheese that either smells or tastes of ammonia due to being overripe or mishandled (i.e. held at fluctuating temperatures).
    • Somewhat common in soft ripened bloomy rind cheeses such as Brie, Camembert, and Chèvres.
    • Lightly ammoniated cheese is not objectionable and safe to eat, however heavy ammoniation is considered unacceptable.

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    Annatto

    • A normally highly concentrated natural food colouring – dye made from the extract of ground bright red – orange seeds of the Annatto tree native to South America.
    • Often used as a colouring additive in cheesemaking to give yellow – orange colour such as Cheddar, Colby, & Leicester.
    • Also known as achiote.
    • Warning, will stain!

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    AOC

    • Abbreviation for Appellation d’Origine Controlee
    • The AOC mark guarantees that the cheese originates from a specific region in France, from milk from specific herds of animals in the same area and partly matured there, that the cheese was made using strictly defined traditional methods, that the characteristics such as size, type of rind, texture and minimum fat content of the cheese have been precisely defined and adhered to, and that the producers submit themselves to review by a public control commission, which guarantees the authenticity and quality of the products.

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    Appearance

    • A term referring to all visual assessments of cheese, from its wrapping, rind, color and texture to how it looks when handled, broken or cut.

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    Appellation d’Origine Controlee

    • The French Appellation d’Origine Controlee in English means Controlled designation of origin.
    • The AOC mark guarantees that the cheese originates from a specific region in France, from milk from specific herds of animals in the same area and partly matured there, that the cheese was made using strictly defined traditional methods, that the characteristics such as size, type of rind, texture and minimum fat content of the cheese have been precisely defined and adhered to, and that the producers submit themselves to review by a public control commission, which guarantees the authenticity and quality of the products.
    • Often abbreviated as “AOC”.

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    Appenzeller

    • Swiss originated cheese made from unpasteurized milk and soaked several days in a wine or cider bath.
    • It has a higher moisture content and a milder flavor than either Emmanthaler or Gruyere.

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    Ardi-gasna

    • Basque word for sheep cheese.

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    Aroma

    • A general term for the odor or scent of cheese. Cheese may lack aroma or display aromas, which range from faint to pronounced, depending upon the cheese variety.
    • Aroma is closely allied to flavour, although cheese with a distinct odor may exhibit a mild flavor while cheese lacking odor may present a strong flavor.
    • Aromas may also specify particular tastes or scents, such as fruity, earthy, oily and nutty.
    • The cheese rind may have a different odor

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    Aromatic

    • A descriptive term for cheeses with distinct, pronounced aromas.

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    Artisan

    • A term describing cheese made in small batches, often with milk from a limited number of farms.
    • Having unique texture or taste profiles developed in small sealed production or by specialized producers.

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    Artisanal

    • Used to describe a cheese that is made by hand rather than by machine.

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    Ash

    • The ash or charcoal used to to coat cheeses. Traditionally the ash was from burned vine roots, but today it is often industrially powdered charcoal. Usually mixed with salt when applied to the outside of cheeses.
    • In French, called cendre.

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    Asiago

    • A medium yellow cheese with hard granular tiny holes and a sharp full flavor named for a small town in Northern Italy.

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    Assertive

    • A term indicating the presence of a pronounced taste or aroma.

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    Astringent

    • A term descriptive of a harsh taste with a puckery, almost medicinal quality.

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    Au Lait Cru

    • French for cheese made from raw milk that has not been pasteurized or thermalized.

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    Baby

    • A smaller quantity of cheese that has been formed into a mini-wheel or cylinder-like shape.

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    Bacteria

    • The microorganisms that circulate just about everywhere, including cheese aging rooms, which contribute to the cheese’s final flavor.
    • Bacteria are also naturally occurring in cheese but most prevalent in unpasteurized milk cheeses.
    • In cheese making bacteria are used to create lactic acid helping to create the proper acidity for setting the curd and making the cheese.

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    Bacterial Cultures

    • Used as starters in the cheesemaking process to bring milk to the proper acid level.
    • They also contribute to the flavours and textures found in cheese.

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    Ball

    • A cheese style that ranges from a very small sphere, as with Fresh Mozzarella (the size of a cherry), to larger than a softball for a Gouda or Edam cheese ball, and a Boccini or Bocci ball for Provolone.

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    Bandaged

    • A cheese, usually cheddar, that is wrapped in cheesecloth and then aged.
    • Also known as cloth wrapped.

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    Barnyardy

    • A flavour and aroma in some cheese that is reminiscent of the smells that emanate from a barn or barnyard.
    • Usually similar to a strong, musty and sometimes dirt like flavour or aroma.
    • Sometimes also called cowy.
    • Can be a favourable quality.

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    Barrel

    • A cheese shape.
    • A style of Cheddar cheese specifically produced for the manufacture of pasteurized process cheese and thus meant to be further processed (i.e., natural variety shredded cheese and a range of processed cheeses).

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    Basic Ingredient

    • A term usually referring to the milk source from which a cheese is made, such as cow’s milk, ewe’s milk, or goat’s milk. Rennet, cultures or enzymes and salt are also considered basic ingredients of cheese.

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    Basket

    • A nontraditional form some cheesemakers use in style presentation of their cheese. One example is American basket Muenster cheese.

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    Beer Cheese

    • A cheese type originated in Germany that is milky white inside and out, often with small holes dotting the paste.
    • Its smell is more pungent than it’s taste.

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    Beestings

    • The first milk a cow gives after calving and is very high in protein.
    • Beestings is used in Spain for the production of Armada, a strong, semi-firm cheese.

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    Bel Paese

    • A cheese originating in Italy, mild in flavor and rich in texture, melts well and can be substituted for mozzarella in pizza.

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    Bifidobacterium Infantis

    • Often abbreviated as BBI.
    • Often used in making Yogurt.

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    Bifidobacterium Longum

    • Often abbreviated as BBL.
    • Often used in making Yogurt.

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    Bitter

    • An unpleasant biting flavour in cheese that usually leaves an aftertaste that is detected after the cheese has been swallowed.
    • Sometimes associated with variations in manufacturing and curing or aging procedures.
    • It is more prevalent in cured cheeses having higher moisture contents.
    • Bitterness is often confused with astringency, true bitterness is a sensation that is typified by the aftertaste of a grapefruit peel.

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    Bleu

    • The French word for blue that is used in reference to the blue-veined cheese varieties.
    • Blue molds are typically Penicillium roqueforti or Penicillium glaucum.
    • Famous varieties include Bleu, Gorgonzola and Stilton.

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    Block

    • The most common style of cheese produced for wholesale distribution.
    • Descriptive of the size and shape of cheese before it is cut for distribution and sale.
    • It is recognized as one of the major styles of natural cheese and is aged in 20, 40, and 60 pound blocks

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    Bloomy Rind

    • The white, flowery, and desirable downy “bloom” on the surface of a soft-ripened cheese such as Camembert or Brie that is the result of a bacteria known as Penicillium candidum.
    • A descriptive term for an edible cheese rind (crust) that is covered with a harmless, flavor-producing growth of white, flowery, and desirable downy “bloom” of Penicillium candidum mold.
    • The most common cheeses with bloomy rinds are soft-ripened Camembert and Brie.
    • Occasionally, brown, pink or red specks are interspersed through the white mold.

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    Blue

    • A style of cheese in which the Penicillium Roqueforti or Penicillium Glaucom mould is added to the curds and/or is prevalent in the aging room or cave.
    • After the cheese is made, formed, and in certain cases, cured for a short while, it is punctured or needled. This creates a passageway for air to enter the cheese and interact with the mold to create veining. The mold that is formed in those veins and throughout the cheese is blue or blue-green.
    • The veins of blue-green mold contribute to the distinctive flavor ranging from delicate and only slightly tangy to richly earthy and very assertive and piquant.

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    Bocci / Boccini

    • A ball-shaped style, typical of Provolone cheese. Bocci weighs approximately 5 pounds. Boccini is a smaller.

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    Bocconcini

    • A term describing a traditional-size Fresh Mozzarella ball, weighing 1-3/4 ounces.

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    Body

    • Refers to the texture of the cheese when touched, handled, cut or eaten.
    • The body may feel rubbery, firm, elastic, soft, resilient, yielding, supple, oily, etc.
    • When rolled between the fingers or cut, it may appear waxy
      or crumbly.
    • Its mouthfeel may be grainy or creamy.

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    Bottes

    • Mats on which cheeses are drained and sometimes sold.

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    Boursin

    • A manufactured smooth triple cream cheese this is seasoned with garlic or black pepper.

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    Bovine Somatotropin

    • A naturally occurring protein hormone from the pituitary gland of cattle that affects the amount of milk produced.
    • Commonly abbreviated at bST.

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    Braided

    • A nontraditional style in the Pasta Filata cheese family.

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    Brebis

    • The French word for female sheep or ewe, or for a sheep’s milk cheese.

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    Brevibacteria Linens

    • Name of bacteria added to the saltwater solution rubbed on washed-rind cheeses during the aging process.
    • They protect the cheese and also lend it its characteristic strong aromas and sometimes flavour.
    • Red coloured bacteria sprayed on the surface of cheeses during maturation to create distinctive flavours and colours.
    • Common cheeses that use Brevibacteria Linens are Muenster, Limburger & Brick.
    • Often referred to as B. Linens

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    Brick

    • A United States originated cheese that ranges in flavour from very mild when young to sharp and pungent when aged.

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    Brine

    • A solution of water and salt of varying salt concentration.
    • Used in cheesemaking to seal the outside of a cheese, help the formation of a rind, expel whey, and deter the growth of bacteria and moulds.
    • Some cheese varieties are washed or dipped during the cheesemaking
      process, others such as Feta, are packed or stored in brine.
    • A saturated brine is where the water cannot absorb any more salt and thus any more salt added will stay in solid form.

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    Brining

    • A step in the manufacture of some cheese varieties where the whole cheese is floated briefly or for an extended period in a brine solution.
    • Brining is common in the production of Mozzarella, Provolone, Swiss, Parmesan, Romano and in washed curd cheeses such as Gouda & Edam.

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    Brique

    • French word for brick shaped rectangular cheese, usually on the thin side.

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    Broken Down

    • Refers to a change in the texture of cheese.
    • For example, cheese may change from a firm, smooth or coarse, curdy or rubbery texture to a waxy (similar to cold butter), mealy or pasty texture.

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    Brother Basil

    • A semi-soft cheese with small eyes, a dark wax coating and a natural smoked flavor.

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    Brouse

    • A cheese made from whey or skimmed milk.

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    Brushed

    • During the curing process, washed-rind cheese varieties are brushed with liquids such as brine, beer, wine or brandy to maintain a moist rind and impart distinctive, earthy flavors.

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    Buche

    • The French word for log, a popular shape for goat cheese.

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    Butterfat

    • The fatty portion of milk often referred to as cream.
    • Milk is commonly separated into types such as whole, 2%, 1%, and skim by the amount of butterfat it contains.
    • Also known as milk fat.

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    Butterkase

    • A mellow tasting cheese with a smooth, creamy texture.

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    Buttermilk

    • Liquid ramaining after butter making.

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    Buttery

    • Pertains to the creamlike, rich flavor in cheese.
    • Triple-creme cheeses are especially buttery because of the cream that is added to the milk to make them.

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    Caban

    • French word for mountain chalet where cheese is made in summer (Pyrenees and Corsica).

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    Caillage

    • French word for clotting or coagulation of milk to form a curd.

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    Caillé

    • French word for curd.

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    Calcium Chloride

    • Used to restore balance to milk that has been pasteurized and thus help with coagulation when using rennet.
    • Is a common salt used to for a variety of purposes such as melting snow on roads, as a food additive and injection into humans in aqueous form for medicine.
    • Mined and refined product and thus comes in many grades of quality.
    • Available from some prescription pharmacies, from cheese making suppliers and some salt water aquarium stores.
    • Chemical symbol is CaCl2.

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    Calcium Lactate Crystals

    • Small white crystals visible on cut surfaces of a cheese.
    • Formed from the amino acid called tyrosine when which has low solubility and thus can crystallise in mature cheese.
    • Common in mature Cheddar and similar cheeses.
    • They are not harmful and often appreciated by Cheddar connoisseurs as indicative of a strong cheese. But, many consumers mistake them for foreign bodies and discard the cheese.

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    Carré

    • French word for a square cheese shape.

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    Casein

    • The main protein in milk.
    • During the cheesemaking process, it coagulates to form curds, in soft cheeses stays soluble, with hard cooked cheese it becomes hard.
    • Also used to make some cheese labels that are embedded in the crust.
    • French word is Caséine.

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    Caséine

    • The main protein in milk.
    • During the cheesemaking process, it coagulates to form curds, in soft cheeses stays soluble, with hard cooked cheese it becomes hard.
    • Also used to make some cheese labels that are embedded in the crust.
    • English word is Casein.

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    Cat’s Hair

    • A black furry mold or mould, if on cheese remove with salt to ensure it doesn’t spread.
    • Also called Poil de Chat in French.

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    Cave

    • Natural cave or cellar underground, where cheeses are stored to ripen or age.
    • Some cheeses pick up bacteria from an underground cave that give them their distinctive flavours.

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    Cellar

    • A room, sometimes underground, where cheeses are stored to ripen or age.
    • Some cheeses pick up bacteria from an underground cave that give them their distinctive flavours.

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    Cendré

    • Cheese coated, ideally, with ashes of vine roots or prunings, but today usually with industrially powered charcoal ready mixed with salt.

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    Chalky

    • Refers to the texture of a cheese where the paste is dry, crumbly, and mouth-coating.
    • Most often found in surface-ripened goat cheeses.

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    Châtaignier/Chataignier

    • French word for Chestnut tree, the leaves of which are used to wrap some cheeses.

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    Cheddaring

    • Cheddaring is the process used in making cheddar cheese whereby piles of small curds that have been separated from the whey are knit together and cut into slabs. The slabs are then repeatedly turned over and stacked to help drain additional whey and aid in the development of proper acidity (pH) and body of the cheese. The slabs are then cut or milled into curds and placed in the cheese mold and pressed.

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    Cheese Cloth

    • A coarse to finely woven cotton cloth used to drain curds, line cheese molds, and perform a host of other cheesemaking functions.
    • Normally available in bleached white and unbleached.

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    Cheese Colouring

    • An additive to cheesemaking to give colour.
    • Most common is Annatto to give yellow – orange colour.

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    Cheese Course

    • Refers to a part of a meal, either the beginning or end, in which cheese is the focus.
    • It may consist of several cheeses or just one, and it may have accompaniments such as crackers, nuts, or fresh or dried fruit.

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    Cheese Iron

    • A small metal corer for removing a plug from the interior of a cheese to test aroma, flavour, and texture.

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    Cheese Salt

    • A non-iodized salt as iodine inhibits starter growth and slows aging.
    • Flaked style is preferred as easier to dissolve in home cheesemaking; other choices are pickling, kosher, or sea crystal style salt as long as non-iodized.

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    Cheese Wax

    • A low melting point pliable normally paraffin based wax used to produce an airtight seal around cheese that will not crack.

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    Cheesemonger

    • A person who is a broker, dealer, or seller of cheese.

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    Chévre

    • The French word for goat.
    • In cheese, Chévre refers to a fresh cheese made with pasteurized goat’s milk.

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    Citrusy

    • A flavor characteristic that is similar to the tart, sometimes sour, and sometimes herbal qualities found in citrus fruits.
    • It might be specific, such as orange like or lemony.
    • Often pertains to high-acid cheeses such as young goat cheese.

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    Clabber

    • The process of curdling milk naturally by souring rather than with cultures.

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    Clayette

    • Straw, reed or wicker mat on which formed cheeses are set to drain.

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    Clean Break

    • The condition of the curd when ready for cutting.
    • To test for clean break, insert a finger or spoon into the curd at a 45 degree angle and lift to see if curd lifts – breaks cleanly.

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    Close

    • A term used to describe a close-textured uniform cheese which is smooth, unblemished and devoid of holes or cracks.

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    Cloth Wrapped

    • A cheese, usually cheddar, that is wrapped in cheesecloth and then aged.
    • Also known as bandaged.

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    Coagulation

    • The first step in cheesemaking where the casein or milk protein, has clumped together to form curds, usually by the addition of rennet.

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    Cooked Curds

    • When curds are cooked by heating, sometimes to very high temperatures, to help expel the whey.
    • Examples of cooked-curd cheeses are Emmentaler and Gruyere.

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    Corynebacteria

    • Known as the red culture as when used on washed rind and smear cheeses it produced an orange/yellow surface colour and a “sulphur” aroma.
    • Often used in making Limburger & Brick.

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    Couche

    • French word for a layer of mold.

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    Creamy

    • A texture, consistency, and/or flavour of certain cheeses, it indicates a smooth and often runny consistency.
    • It usually refers to the ripe forms of Brie, Camembert, and other soft-ripened cheeses.
    • Also used to describe a flavour denoting rich and / or milky characteristics.

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    Creme Fraiche

    • French for fresh cream.
    • Refers to cultured milk or cream, or a combination of both. The result is a thick, fresh cheese similar in consistency to sour cream.
    • The flavour is buttery and a little tangy, and is popular on fruit tarts or pies instead of whipped cream.

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    Crémerie

    • French word for a cheese shop.

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    Croute

    • French word for the skin or outside covering of a cheese.

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    Cru

    • French word for raw, unpasteurised milk.

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    Curd

    • The solid or coagulated portions of the milk.
    • Curds are the result of the casein or milk proteins clumping together after they are exposed to bacteria which increases the acidity of the milk.
    • The curd contains most of the milk protein and fat.
    • Curds often are further solidified by adding rennet.

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    Curd Cutter

    • A device for cutting curds, normally in both vertical and horizontal.
    • Also called a Curd Knife.

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    Curd Knife

    • A device for cutting curds, normally in both vertical and horizontal.
    • Also called a Curd Knife.

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    Curd Mill

    • A device for grinding curd into pieces, the size of the pieces varying according to the type of cheese.

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    Cutting Curd

    • Step in cheesemaking where the single large curd is cut into equal-sized pieces normally with a curd cutter or curd knife to facilitate whey expulsion.

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    Cuve

    • French word for a large vat.

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    Dairy Thermometer

    • A thermometer with a lower than normal range of freezing to boiling.
    • Most kitchen cooking thermometers have ranges well above this.

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    DCM

    • A measure of rennet’s activity level.

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    Demi Sec

    • French words for half dry.

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    Denominazione di Origine Protetta

    • Abbreviated as DOP.
    • An Italian designation for a cheese that is protected by European Law and stipulates that a cheese with that designation is from a specific area, and made according to a specific regime.

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    Direct Culture Unit or Danisco Culture Unit or DCU

    • Direct Culture Unit is a culture manufacturers measurement of activity for up to 10 liters of milk. As each manufactured batch of culture has different activity levels, the shipping pouches are filled based on DCU so that each package always fits the same volume of milk. Thus, the higher the activity level, the smaller the package weight).
    • Example: 10 DCU pouch of culture is enough for up to 100 liters/26.4 US gallons of milk.
    • Example: 50 DCU pouch of culture is enough for up to 500 liters/132.1 US gallons of milk.
    • Also sometimes called Danisco Culture Unit.
    • The common abbreviation of Direct Culture Unit is DCU.

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    DOP

    • An abbreviation for Italian Denominazione di Origine Protetta.
    • An Italian designation for a cheese that is protected by European Law and stipulates that a cheese with that designation is from a specific area, and made according to a specific regime.

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    Draining

    • The process of separating the cut curds from the expelled whey by pouring them through a cheesecloth lined strainer-colander.

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    Dry Matter

    • The portion of the cheese that is comprised of solids after the water has been removed.
    • Most cheeses have at least 25 percent of their weight in dry matter or solids.
    • The portion of the cheese that is measured for total fat content.

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    Earthy

    • A term used to describe a flavour that has characteristics of the earth or soil, the area where the cheese is made, and/or the feed of the animal.
    • It may also describe a slight mustiness.

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    Enzymes

    • Found in living cells, they cause chemical changes when for example associated with rennet.

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    Epicea

    • French word for Spruce.

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    Eyes

    • Tiny or large openings in the body of cheese as a result of certain bacteria.
    • Caused by bacterial activity which generates propionic acid causing gas to expand within the curd while maturing and create the pockets, or holes.
    • The eyes are normally spherical, roughly equally-spaced and can range from 1 to 3 cm / 1/2 to 1 inch diameter.
    • Popular cheeses with eyes are Swiss Emmentaler and Gruyere.
    • Also known as holes.

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    Faiselles

    • French name for cheese molds with holes that allow the whey to drain.

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    Fat Content

    • Degree of fatness of cheese, expressed as a percentage of fat in total dry matter.

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    Fermentation

    • The process by which milk becomes cheese and other milk products such as sour cream and yogurt.
    • Technically, fermentation is the process leading to the breakdown of carbohydrates. In the case of milk, lactococci or lactobacilli bacteria are introduced to the milk, which cause the shift of lactose to lactic acid. This conversion sets up the proper acid levels and textural consistency for the milk to be made into cheese.

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    Fermier

    • French adjective used to describe a farm-made cheese.

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    Fourme

    • Old French word for cheese derived from the form or mold in which it was made.

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    Fraiche or Frais

    • French word for fresh.

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    Fresh Cheese

    • Cheeses that have not been aged or ripened.
    • Examples are cottage cheese, pot cheese, and mozzarella.

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    Fromage

    • French word for cheese.

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    Fromage Blanc

    • French for a fresh cheese that has been lightly drained, not white cheese.

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    Fromage Fort

    • French for a strong food usually made in a pot from cheese leftovers with alcohol and herbs added.

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    Fromage Fraise

    • French for cheese that has been salted, but sold unripened.

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    Fromager

    • French for Cheesemaker, or Wholesaler, or retailer of cheese.

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    Fromagerie

    • French for cheese dairy, also used as name for cheese shop.

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    Geotrichum candidum

    • A ripening mold that is often used in conjunction with Penicillium candidum or Brevibacteria linens in making surface-ripened, soft-ripened, and washed-rind cheeses.
    • Grows rapidly on cheese surface to form a thick velvety surface, contributes flavour and acts as a protector for Penicillium candidum and Brevibacterium linens from undesirable molds.
    • Cheeses with Geotrichum candidum can often be identified by their wrinkly rind.

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    Gibna

    • Arabic word for cheese, also spelt as Jibneh or Jibne.

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    Haloir

    • French word for room where lactic cheeses are stored to dry.

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    Heat Treated Milk

    • Milk that has been heated to 130° F/54° C for two to sixteen seconds to kill off any potentially unhealthful organisms that might exist in raw milk, yet retain certain flavour and other characteristics of the milk.

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    Homogenization

    • A process that mechanical breaks up the fat globules in the milk to enable longer shelf life.
    • The consequence is a disperse fat molecules that prevents separation and thus no longer rise in the milk.
    • It also helps in cheesemaking as less fat is lost in the whey, resulting in a higher yield.
    • Many cheesemakers avoid homogenized milk as they believe the larger fat globules are beneficial to the consistency and flavor of their cheese.

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    Hoop

    • A cylindrical open ended mold for cheese.

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    Hooping

    • The process of putting wet curds into molds or hoops.

    Jibneh/Jibne

    • Arabic word for cheese, also spelt as Gibna.

    Kaas

    • The Dutch word for cheese.

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    Lactic

    • The strong presence of milk in flavour and/or aroma.

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    Lactic Acid

    • Acid created in milk during cheesemaking when Starter Culture or natural bacteria in the milk consumes the milk sugars (lactose) and produces lactic acid as a byproduct.

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    Lactobacillus Acidophilus

    • Culture.
    • Often used in making Yogurt.
    • Often abbreviated as LA.

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    Lactobacillus Casei subspecies Casei

    • Thermophilic acid starter culture.
    • Often used in cheese making.
    • Often abbreviated as LBC.

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    Lactobacillus Delbrueckii subspecies Bulgaricus

    • Thermophilic acid starter culture.
    • Often used in making Yogurt.
    • Often used in making soft and semi-soft type cheeses.
    • Often abbreviated as LB.

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    Lactobacillus Helveticus

    • Thermophilic acid starter culture.
    • Often used in making Italian, Swiss, & farmstead hard type cheeses such as Parmesan, Romano, Provolone, Mozzarella, & Emmental/Swiss.
    • Late developing ripening culture that breaks down the protein which develops cheese body and forms mountain style cheese flavour.
    • Often abbreviated as LH.

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    Lactobacillus Lactis

    • Thermophilic acid starter culture.
    • Often used in making hard, Italian & Swiss cheeses such as Parmesan, Romano, Provolone, Mozzarella, & Emmental/Swiss.
    • Often abbreviated as LBL.

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    Lactococcus Helveticus

    • Thermophilic cheese making starter culture.
    • Often abbreviated as LH.

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    Lactococcus Lactis subspecies Biovar Diacetylactis

    • Mesophilic aroma culture not normally used just by itself as it will not produce enough acid in the cheese.
    • Used to enhance butter like flavour and produce small eyes in cheeses such as Gouda, Edam or Havarti due to it’s gas production.
    • Often used in making Buttermilk & Sour Cream.
    • Often used in making soft ripened and fresh cheeses such as Brie, Camembert, Havarti, Gouda, Edam, Feta, Blue, Chevre, etc.
    • Often used in making For use in soft goat cheeses, cottage cheeses, sour cream, cultured butter, fermented buttermilk and fresh cheeses.
    • Often abbreviated as LLD.

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    Lactococcus Lactis subspecies Cremoris

    • One of two main mesophilic lactic acid starter culture producing bacteria used by the cheese industry.
    • Often used in making Buttermilk & Sour Cream.
    • Often used in making semi-soft and fresh cheeses such as Cheddar, Colby, Monterey Jack, Feta, Chevre, etc.
    • Often abbreviated as LLC.

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    Lactococcus Lactis subspecies Lactis

    • One of two main mesophilic lactic acid starter culture producing bacteria used by the cheese industry.
    • Often used in making Buttermilk & Sour Cream.
    • Often used in making semi-soft and fresh cheeses such as Cheddar, Colby, Monterey Jack, Feta, Chevre, etc.
    • Often abbreviated as LL.

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    Lactococcus Mesenteroides

    • Often abbreviated as LM.

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    Lactose

    • A natural sugar present in milk of mammals.

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    Lactose Intolerant

    • A term referring to the inability to easily digest lactose or milk sugar in milk.
    • Symptoms of lactose intolerance can include bloating, diarrhea, and nausea.
    • Aged cheeses such as Cheddar and Swiss contain little or no lactose.

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    Lait

    • French word for milk.

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    Leuconostoc Mesenteroides subspecies Cremoris

    • Often abbreviated as LMC.
    • Mesophilic aroma culture.
    • Often used in making Buttermilk & Sour Cream.
    • Often used in making For use in soft goat cheeses, cottage cheeses, sour cream, cultured butter, fermented buttermilk and fresh cheeses.
    • Often used as an enhancer for Blue Cheese and Gouda.

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    Lipase

    • A fat splitting enzyme added to some cheeses to produce a sharp flavor.
    • Lipase is predominantly used in Italian Provolone and Romano type cheeses.

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    Lyophilized or LYO

    • Lyophilized mean that a normally perishable material is dehydrated to preserves or make it more convenient for transport. The process also called cryodesiccation or freeze-drying works by freezing the material and then reducing the surrounding pressure and adding enough heat to allow the frozen water in the material to evaporate to a gas, leaving just the solids.
    • Cheese making starter cultures are often freeze dried or lyophilized so that they can be shipped without refrigeration.
    • The common abbreviation of lyophilized is LYO.

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    Make Room

    • The room/area designated for transforming milk into cheese.
    • French word is Salle se Fabrication.

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    Marc

    • French word for spirit made from distilled wine pressings.

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    Mesophilic Culture

    • A class of “low heat loving” cheesemaking starter cultures used cheeses requiring cooking temps under ~ 38 C / 100 F.
    • Temperatures over ~ 38 C / 100 F can kill mesophilic bacteria.
    • A common simple Mesophilic Starter Culture for starting cheesemakers is buttermilk.
    • Different freeze dried and powdered mesophilic cultures are used to create different types of cheeses.

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    MFFB

    • Abbreviation for Moisture in Fat Free Basis of final cheese.

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    Micro Organisms

    • Yeasts and other fermenting agents present in milk and thus curd and thus cheese.
    • Can be wild and naturally-occurring or cultured and introduced which is normally referred to as a Starter Culture.

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    Milk Fat

    • The fatty portion of milk often referred to as cream.
    • Milk is commonly separated into types such as whole, 2%, 1%, and skim by the amount of butterfat it contains.
    • Also known as butterfat.

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    Milling

    • The process of breaking up the curd after it has ripened for placement into a mold for pressing.

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    Mold / Mould

    • A container with tiny holes to allow the drainage of whey and whose shape determines the final shape of the cheese.
    • Microflora which grows on surface on inside of cheese during ripening. Surface molds are sometimes sprayed on the outside of the cheese as in the case of Camembert, these types of molds are edible. Mold is also the undesirable growth that forms on the outside of old and/or poorly wrapped cheese. On semi and hard cheese, the mold can usually be cut away and the cheese consumed.

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    Mold / Mould Ripened

    • A culture used to inoculate cheeses during the aging process to achieve a very distinctive flavor.
    • Examples of mould ripened cheeses are Blue family & Brie.

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    Molding / Moulding

    • The step in cheesemaking when the curds are poured or hand ladled into molds.
    • Also known as hooping.

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    Morge

    • French for brine enriched with scrapings from old cheeses and used to rub the surfaces of some cheeses during affinage.

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    Natural Rind

    • A rind that develops naturally from molds and bacteria in the cheese and/or molds found in the cheese aging room.
    • Examples are aged, semi-hard cheeses such as Tomme de Savoie.

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    Natural Rind

    • A rind that develops naturally from molds and bacteria in the cheese and/or molds found in the cheese aging room.
    • Examples are aged, semi-hard cheeses such as Tomme de Savoie.

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    NDM

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    Nonfat Dry Milk

    • Industry term for powdered milk.
    • Commonly abbreviated as NDM.
    • Historically made by pasteurizing milk, separating fat off, run through an evaporator to remove water, and then run through a dryer.
    • More modern powder plants use a one step centrifugal dryer.

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    Open

    • A term used to describe an open-textured non-uniform cheese which contains openings, or holes.

    Ost

    • The Danish word for cheese.

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    Pasta Filata

    • Italian for spun paste, the name for the process of stretching and pulling the heated curd in hot whey or water to make a firm and elastic stringy texture.
    • Mozzarella is the most famous pasta filata cheese.
    • Also known as Pulled Curd.

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    Paste

    • The interior of a cheese.
    • Also known as pate in French.

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    Pasteurization

    • The process of heat treating milk to unwanted or unhealthy organisms.
    • There are two standard forms, 160° F/71° C for fifteen seconds, or 145° F/63°C for thirty minutes.

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    Pate

    • French word for the interior of a cheese.
    • Also known as paste in English.

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    Pave

    • French word a thick, square cheese, shaped like a paving stone.

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    Pays

    • French word a village, district, or province.

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    Pelle

    • French word a round cutting-edged shovel used to handle normally brie curd.

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    Penicillium candidum

    • A white cheese making mould that is often used in surface-ripened cheeses to create flavour as well as the growth of the distinctive white or bloomy rind.
    • Common examples are Camembert & Brie.

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    Penicillium album

    • A white/grey mould that is often used in surface-ripened cheeses to create flavour as well as the growth of the distinctive white or bloomy rind.

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    Penicillium roqueforti

    • Famous cheese making mold originally found in the caves near Roquefort, France.
    • Very fast growing culture that produces the intense dark blue-green marbled interior of blue cheeses.
    • Most often used in making Blue, Stilton, and Gorgonzola type cheeses.
    • One of the most common spoilage moulds of silage.

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    Petit Lait

    • French word for whey, does not mean small milk.

    Peynir

    • The Turkish word for cheese.

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    PF Ratio

    • Protein to fat ratio of milk.

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    pH

    • A measurement of acidity – alkalinity with 7 being neutral, less than 7 acidic and higher than 7 alkaline. pH level is often used to determine when the curd is ready for the next step.

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    PLA

    • Danisco Choozit brand smear type starter culture containing Brevibacterium linens, Arthrobacter nicotianae, Debaryomyces hansenii, & Geotrichum candidum.

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    Poil de Chat

    • French name for Cat’s Hair in English.
    • A black furry mold or mould, if on cheese remove with salt to ensure it doesn’t spread.

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    Pressing

    • A step in cheesemaking where the curds are placed in a mold and placed under pressure to remove more whey and reduce water content.

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    Pricking

    • A step in making of some cheeses where it is pierced with needles to allow air in and thus the entry and development of mould.
    • Common with blue veined cheeses.

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    Processed Cheese

    • Process where cheese is heat treated and combined with an emulsifying agent, oil and water, then molded and sealed while still hot.

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    Proprionibacteria Freudenreichii subspecies Shermanii

    • Cheese making culture that enables cheese to develop eyes or holes.
    • Used primarily for the eye formation, aroma, and flavour production in Swiss type cheeses such as Emmental & Gruyere.
    • Often abbreviated as PS.

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    Pulled Curd

    • The process of stretching and pulling the heated curd in hot whey or water to make a firm and elastic stringy texture.
    • Mozzarella is the most famous pasta filata cheese.
    • Also known as Pasta Filata.

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    Quark

    • A non or low fat fresh cheese whose texture lies somewhere between yogurt and a creamy cottage cheese.
    • A staple for most Germans, quark can be used in place of sour cream or yogurt in baking, and as a tart topping on toast or fresh fruit salad.
    • Also known as quarg.

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    Rancid

    • A soapy, bitter, and “off” flavour that is usually the result of poorly handled milk.

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    Raw Milk

    • The natural state of milk from the animal, i.e. before homogenization or pasteurization.

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    Redressing

    • The process of removing a cheese’s cloth wrapping and applying new cheesecloth.

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    Rennet

    • A substance than contains the enzyme rennin that aids in coagulating milk or separating curds from whey.
    • Historical source is from the membranes of calves’ stomachs, vegetable such as thistle and laboratory microbial rennin from selected fungi and bacteria.

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    Rennin

    • The enzyme that coagulates milk.

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    Rind

    • The outer surface of a cheese developed during the drying and pressing stages of the cheesemaking process helping to seal in and control the moisture content of the cheese during long aging periods.

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    Ripe

    • The term means that a cheese is at its peak of its development and thus at its optimal point to be eaten.
    • Also known as a point in French.

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    Ripening

    • A cheesemaking step where the milk is allowed to undergo an increase in acidity due to the activity of a starter culture.
    • Also used to describe aging or maturing of a cheese.

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    Salle De Fabrication

    • French for the room/area designated for transforming milk into cheese.
    • English term is Make Room.

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    Salting

    • A cheesemaking step of adding salt to the curds, normally before pressing or aging.

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    Soft Ripened

    • A style of cheese that ripens from the rind inward from the mold added in the cheesemaking process and/or sprayed on the surface of the cheese after it has been shaped.
    • Evidence that a soft-ripened cheese has begun its ripening or softening is that the cheese just under the rind is soft, yet the middle is still firm.

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    Squeakers

    • Name of cheese curds that are packaged and sold the same day they are made.
    • Invented in Wisconsin, USA, they are named as they squeak when they are chewed due to their freshness.

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    Starter Culture

    • Normally consists of varying percentages of lactic acid, bacteria or mould spores, enzymes or other microorganisms and natural chemicals.
    • Used in cheesemaking to speed and control the process of curdling milk by starting the conversion of lactose into lactic acid which raised the acidity helping to make the curd.
    • Impacts the consistency and flavor of the cheese.
    • Are classified as either mesophilic and thermophilic.

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    Streptococcus Thermophilus

    • Thermophilic acid starter culture.
    • Often used in making Yogurt.
    • Often used in making soft and semi-soft type cheeses.
    • Often used in making Italian, Swiss, & farmstead hard type cheeses such as Parmesan, Romano, Provolone, Mozzarella, & Emmental/Swiss.
    • Often abbreviated as ST.

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    Surface Ripened

    • A group of cheeses that are ripened or aged by the molds and bacteria that exist on the surface of the cheese.

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    Syneresis

    • Syneresis is a term describing the process in which the coagulated milk gel contracts on standing and exudes whey.

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    Thermophilic Culture

    • A starter culture used for making cheeses with high heat normally above ~ 38 C / 100 F.
    • A common simple thermophilic starter culture for starting cheesemakers is yogurt.
    • Different freeze dried and powdered thermophilic cultures are used to create different types of cheeses such as Parmesan.

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    Tomme

    • French word for small, round goat’s milk cheese but sometimes used for larger pressed cheese of all types of milk.

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    Trappist

    • Term given to cheeses made in monasteries that follow Trappist practices.

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    Turophile

    • A lover of cheese.
    • Comes from the Greek words for cheese, tyros, and lover, philos.

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    Turophilia

    • The love of cheese.
    • Comes from the Greek words for cheese, tyros, and love, philia.

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    Vache

    • French word for a cow, or a cheese that has been made with cow’s milk.

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    Washed Rind

    • A cheese rind that is sprayed misted or rinsed regularly with a liquid, normally during the ripening-aging period.
    • Liquids can be brine, sometimes with bacteria Brevibacteria Linens, beer, wine, brandy or other material to impact flavour on the cheese.
    • Most washed-rind cheeses can be distinguished by their orangeish, reddish, pinkish, or tan coloured rind that form because of the presence of Brevibacteria Linens.

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    Waxy

    • Refers to the appearance of a cheese that is slick and smooth and has no apparent rind.
    • Can be a negative or positive feature, depending on the cheese.

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    Whey

    • The high protein yellow – green liquid portion of milk which develops after coagulation and separation of the milk solids.
    • Whey contains water, milk sugar, albuminous proteins, and minerals.

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