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    Wiki: Ingredients, When To Add

    This Wiki Article discusses the several common cheese making ingredients which can be added to milk at the start of the cheese making process before the curd is formed. It provides a short description, Order to add, Measuring, When Add, and Adding Method. Which ingredients to add and their amounts are cheese type – recipe specific and not discussed here. If your recipe and the recommendations below differ, follow the recipe. This article is to understand Typical cheese curd ingredients are:

    1. Cheese Base such as milk, cream, or whey.
    2. Milk Enrichers such as creams or milk powder.
    3. Starter Culture to ripen the milk by creating lactic acid and aid in coagulation.
    4. Colourants to change the cheeses colour from common default white.
    5. Lipase as a flavour augmentor.
    6. Calcium Chloride to aid in rennet coagulation if using store bought pasteurized milk.
    7. Rennet as a coagulant.

    Cheese Base

    • Description: Milk, Cream, Whey
      • Can be from single or multiple animals
      • Can be from combination of raw and pasteurized.
    • Order: First as base for cheese and needs to be heated or cooled to recipe temperature before other ingredients added.
    • Measuring: Standard volume or weight measuring devices.
    • When Add: Start of cheese making.
    • Adding Method: Pour into cheese vat with minimal foaming to minimize oxidation of milk.

    2 – Milk Enrichers

    Common Household Kitchen Food Colourants - CheeseForum.org

    Common Household Kitchen Food Colourants - CheeseForum.org

    • Description: Creams, Milk Powder.
    • Order: Second as normally diluted into cheese base.
    • Measuring: Standard volume or weight measuring devices.
    • When Add: Directly after placing cheese base in vat as need to adjust temperature before adding other ingredients.
    • Adding Method: Pour liquids and dry powder directly in cheese base in vat with minimal splashing or foaming to minimize oxidation of milk. Stir until additional fluid is fully diluted or powder is fully dissolved.

    3 – Colourants

    • Description: Annatto or other food grade dyes, normally liquid.
    • Order: After cheese base and any enrichers to ensure good dilution, before Starter Culture is added to minimize stirring after adding. Can be added before or after Lipase or Calcium Chloride (if used).
    • Measuring: Small volumes by drops from an “eye dropper” bottle, larger with liquid measuring device.
    • When Add: While adjusting vat ingredients temperature to recipe requirement as Colourants are normally inert and not temperature sensitive.
    • Adding Method: Normally highly concentrated thus to ensure optimal dilution, pre-dilute in non-fluoridated water then trickle into vat from low height to minimize splashing then stir in with vertical strokes of perforated ladle to thoroughly dilute (unless want streaky coloured cheese in which case stir less). Some colorants will degrade rennets’ effect, thus ensure your dilution container is cleaned before using it to dilute rennet.

    4 – Lipase

    Danisco Brand Mild Calf Lipase, 16 Ounces - CheeseForum.org

    Danisco Brand Mild Calf Lipase, 16 Ounces - CheeseForum.org

    • Description: Normally manufactured freeze-dried product.
    • Order: After cheese base and any enrichers to ensure good dilution, before Starter Culture is added to minimize stirring after adding. Can be added before of after Colourants or Calcium Chloride (if used).
    • Measuring: By volume as can be partially rehydrated depending on storage practices.
    • When Add: Preferably after adjusting vat ingredients temperature to recipe requirement as Lipase is minimally temperature sensitive.
    • Adding Method: Sprinkle freeze-dried into bowl of non-fluoridated water to rehydrate for 20 minutes. Then trickle directly into the milk then stir in vertically with perforated ladle just barely breaking surface to minimize splashing and foaming to full depth of vat for 1 minute to ensure optimal dilution.

    5 – Calcium Chloride

    • Description: Normally diluted aqueous liquid.
    • Order: After cheese base and any enrichers to ensure good dilution, before Starter Culture is added to minimize stirring after adding. Can be added before or after Colourants or Lipase (if used).
    • Measuring: Liquid measuring device.
    • When Add: While adjusting vat ingredients temperature to recipe requirement as Calcium Chloride is inert and not temperature sensitive.
    • Adding Method: Normally highly concentrated thus to ensure optimal dilution, pre-dilute in non-fluoridated water then trickle into vat from low height to minimize splashing then stir in with vertical strokes of perforated ladle to thoroughly dilute (unless want streaky coloured cheese in which case stir less). Some colorants will degrade rennets’ effect, thus ensure your dilution container is cleaned before using it to dilute rennet.

    6 – Lactic Acid Starter Culture

    Danisco's Choozit Product Line, MM100, 250 Dose Mesophilic Lactice Acid Producing Starter Culture - CheeseForum.org

    Danisco's Choozit Product Line, MM100, 250 Dose Mesophilic Lactice Acid Producing Starter Culture - CheeseForum.org

    • Description: Natural in milk, whey from previous cheese making, concentrated buttermilk, manufactured liquid or frozen or freeze dried. Mesophilic or Thermophilic or combination.
    • Order: After other ingredients and before rennet (if used) after which do not want to stir as break curd.
    • Measuring: Set of small volume measuring devices for liquids and a mini scale for solids.
    • When Add: After other curd ingredients added and before rennet added (if used) and vat materials are at recipe’s recommended temperature.
    • Adding Method: Pour liquid or frozen into vat minimizing any splashing or sprinkle freeze-dried directly onto the milk and allow to rehydrate for 5 minutes. Then stir in vertically with perforated ladle just barely breaking surface to minimize splashing and foaming to full depth of vat for 1 minute to ensure optimal dilution. Note, after diluted, do not stir (unless adding rennet) during ripening period as excessive aeration can reduce the rate of acid production resulting in longer ripening times required to get to the correct pH before renneting.

    7 -Rennet

    • Description: Normally diluted aqueous liquid, tablet, or freeze-dried.
    • Order: After other ingredients as do not want to stir as break curd while curd is forming until correct point to break or cut curd.
    • Measuring: Set of small volume measuring devices for liquids and a mini scale for solids, pill cutter if need part of tablet for tiny batches.
    • When Add: After all other curd ingredients added and ripening time or pH drop after adding starter culture as determined by recipe.
    • Adding Method: Dilute or dissolve rennet in small amount of non-fluoridated water, then pour liquid into vat minimizing any splashing. Note, tablets can take up to 45 minutes to fully dissolve. Then stir in vertically with perforated ladle just barely breaking surface to minimize splashing and foaming to full depth of vat for 1 minute to ensure optimal dilution. Note, after diluted, do not stir during coagulation period until point to break or cut the single large curd. Note, some colorants will degrade rennets’ effect, thus use separated clean dilution container or colourant dilution container is cleaned before re-using to dilute rennet in.

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